Haemorrhoids are actually blood vessels located in the smooth muscles of the rectum and the anus. They are a normal part of the human anatomy and are located at the junction where small arteries meet veins. They are cushioned by smooth muscles and connective tissue and are classified by where they are located in relationship to the pectinate line, which is the lower point between the upper and lower anus. Haemorrhoids only become a problem when they begin to swell. Swollen haemorrhoids are also called piles, but commonly individuals and even doctors sometimes refer swollen haemorrhoids or piles as simply ‘haemorrhoids’.


Haemorrhoids or piles, are a common complaint in India in aged people. The symptoms of this condition includes:

• Painless bleeding
• Anal itching
• Pain
• Swelling or lump in the anus
• Feeling of inflammation in the anus

Blood in stool should never be ignored as it can be a symptom of something other than haemorrhoids too, like colon cancer or anal cancer. It can also be a result of ulcers, diverticulitis, inflammatory bowel disease or tumours.
Also, internal haemorrhoids, when inflamed, do not cause any pain as they are no pain fibres attached to the veins above the pectinate line. External haemorrhoids, however, are covered with regular skin, and have pain fibres associated with them, which can cause intense pain felt as a hard painful lump.

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Haemorrhoid swelling or piles occur when there is an increase in the pressure in the small vessels that make up haemorrhoid causing them to swell and engorge with blood. This increase in size can be caused by a variety of factors like:

• Low fibre diet and small calibre stool, which causes a person to strain during bowel movement, increasing the pressure in blood vessels.
Pregnancy is also associated with haemorrhoid swelling. This is caused due to the increased pressure of the enlarged uterus on the rectum and anus. Hormonal changes in the body may also weaken muscles that support the rectum and anus.
• Prolonged sitting on the toilet may increase pressure within the haemorrhoid blood vessels.
• Diarrhoea, both acute and chronic
• Colon cancer
• Previous rectal surgery
• Spinal cord injury and lack of erect posture

Haemorrhoids are a condition covered under the medical discipline known as gastroenterology. There are hospitals in Patna where one can find the top expert gastroenterologists in Patna, which specialize in all sorts of gastric problem treatment, from gall bladder stone to gastrointestinal cancers.

Author's Bio: 

My name is Gaurav Gautam, I am Graduate in English (Hons) from Delhi University. I am professional content writer but I am very enthusiastic for health & fitness industry. Above article is based on Haemorrhoids - A Gastroenterology Disorder