For unknown reasons, the number of people in the United States with kidney stones has been increasing over the past 30 years. In the late 1970s, less than 4 percent of the population had stone-forming disease. By the early 1990s, the portion of the population with the disease had increased to more than 5 percent. Caucasians are more prone to develop kidney stones than African Americans. Stones occur more frequently in men. The prevalence of kidney stones rises dramatically as men enter their 40s and continues to rise into their 70s. For women, the prevalence of kidney stones peaks in their 50s. Once a person gets more than one stone, other stones are likely to develop.

Types of kidney stones

Calcium stones: Calcium stones are the most common type of stones. Calcium is a normal part of a healthy diet and is used by bones and muscles. Calcium not used by the body goes to the kidneys where it is normally flushed out with the rest of the urine. In some people, however, the calcium that stays behind joins with other waste products to form a stone.

Struvite stones: Struvite stones are a type of stone that contains the mineral magnesium and the waste product ammonia. It may form after an infection in the urinary system.
Uric acid stones: Uric acid stones may form when there is too much acid in the urine.

Cystine stones: Cystine stones consist of cystine, one of the building blocks that make up muscles, nerves, and other parts of the body, can build up in the urine and form a stone. Cystine stones are rare. The disease that causes cystine stones (cystinosis) runs in families.
Symptom of Kidney Stones

Kidney stones often do not cause any symptoms. Usually, the first symptom of a kidney stone is extreme pain, which begins suddenly when a stone moves in the urinary tract and blocks the flow of urine. Typically, a person feels a sharp, cramping pain in the back and side in the area of the kidney or in the lower abdomen. Sometimes nausea and vomiting occur. Later, pain may spread to the groin.

When a tubular structure is blocked in the body, pain is generated in waves as the body tries to unblock the obstruction. These waves of pain are called colic.

Blood may be visible in the urine because the stone has irritated the ureter. Blood in the urine, however, does not always mean a person has a kidney stone. There may be other reasons for the blood, including kidney and bladder infections, trauma, or tumors. Urinalysis with a microscope may detect blood even if it is not appreciated by the naked eye. Sometimes, if the stone causes complete obstruction, there may be no blood in the urine because it cannot get past the stone.

Other Symptom of kidney stones

The following are the most common symptoms of kidney stones. However, each individual may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:
Extreme, sharp pain in the back or side that will not go away
Blood in the urine
Nausea and vomiting
Cloudy or odorous urine
Frequent urination
A burning feeling when you urinate
Fever and chills
Prompt medical attention for kidney stones is necessary.
The symptoms of kidney stones may resemble other conditions or medical problems. Always consult your physician for a diagnosis.

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