Liposomes are composed of lipid bilayers with water-phase closed vesicles inside. Its structure is similar to biological membranes, and it has hydrophilic and hydrophobic amphoteric properties after being balanced in water.
Liposomes have the following characteristics:
1) Liposome is a kind of vesicle.   
2) The vesicle wall of the liposome is composed of two layers of phospholipid molecules.  
3) Phospholipids can be formed into liposomes under certain conditions, instead of putting phospholipids in water to produce liposomes, phospholipids can only form emulsified particles when stirred in water or glycerol.  
4) Liposomes encapsulate other substances to form liposomes with different contents.

Liposomes have a wide range of applications. Because the structure of phospholipid bilayer membrane is similar to that of cell membrane, and it can be modified to make it have some properties similar to organism, Therefore, as a cell model, liposomes are of great significance in the study and simulation of biological structure and function. Another important application of liposomes is as drug carriers. Drugs are encapsulated in the aqueous phase and membrane phase of liposomes to control the targeting effect of liposomes so that they can concentrate on the lesion site and release drugs, thus reducing the dose of drugs needed.

Application of liposomes as drug carriers
As a carrier of anticancer drugs
Because of the orientation of liposomes to the lymphatic system and the affinity to cancer cells, the distribution of drugs in tissues is changed, which makes the drugs selectively kill cancer cells or inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells, so as to improve the curative effect, reduce the dose, reduce the toxicity, and reduce the allergy and immune reaction.

As an antibacterial drug carrier
Taking advantage of the strong affinity between liposomes and biological cell membranes, encapsulating antibiotics in liposomes can enhance the antibacterial effect. For example, after indomethacin is made into liposomes, its effect of inhibiting the inflammatory reaction of corneal perforation injury is more obvious than that of suspension enhanced. At the same time, since the particles of liposomes and lipoplexes or lipid dispersions are mainly concentrated in the reticuloendothelial system relative to free drugs, they can be used to treat reticuloendothelial diseases such as leishmaniasis.

As an antiviral drug carrier
Liposomes made of antiviral drugs can significantly improve antiviral efficacy and reduce dosage and side effects.

In recent years, the development of stereostable liposomes has greatly improved the stability of liposomes in vivo, which makes liposomes as drug carriers in the treatment of cancer and other diseases are going to the practical stage. In the future, with the development of science and technology and the in-depth study of liposome manufacturing and liposome design, we believe that more and better new liposomes will be created.

Author's Bio: 

Creative Biostructure is an innovative biotechnology company founded in 2005, which has committed to the research and development of liposome technology in the past decade, and has established a comprehensive liposome platform .