Cathodic Protection & Electrochemical Techniques for Corrosion Control in Oil & Gas, Chemicals, Fertilizers, Petrochemicals, Power Plants, Infrastructure, etc.
Corrosion is deterioration of a material, usually metal, that results from a chemical or electrochemical reaction with its environment.
Three components responsible for corrosion:
1. Material to be corroded
2. Chemical or electrochemical reaction
3. Surrounding environment

1. Metal usually high carbon steel used in oil and gas pipeline
2. Chemical or electrochemical reaction: Chemical or electrochemical reaction takes place between metal and environment that contains moisture, oxygen and other chemicals which results into decay in metal that is called corrosion.
3. Environment: The surrounding environment responsible for electrochemical reaction is called electrolyte containing moisture, oxygen and other chemicals.

Corrosion is an electrochemical process involving the flow of electrons and ions. Electrons are negatively charged particles and ions are electrically charged atoms either positive or negative.
Electrochemical Corrosion is due to transfer of charged ions at metal/electrolyte interface which is anode and other part of metal is called cathode.
Corrosion occurs at anode and cathode is protected.
Corrosion occurs within a corrosion cell that consists of four parts:
1. Anode
2. Cathode
3. Electrolyte
4. Metallic Path

If any of the above is absent then corrosion ceases to exist
Corrosion protection methods are based on isolating either one of them or stopping electrochemical reaction which causes corrosion.
Electrochemical Cell- Corrosion reaction at anode and cathode

Corrosion Reaction:

Fe ↔ Fe ++ + 2e- At anode: (Oxidation)
2e- + 2H+ ↔ 2H →H2 ↑ At cathode: hydrogen reduction (more common in acidic environment where pH is below 4)
H2O +2e- +½ O2 →2(OH -) Oxygen reduction (more common in neutral environment where pH is 6-7)
At Anode
Fe++ + 2OH- -------› Fe (OH)2
Fe (OH)2 + ½ O2 +½ H2 O--------› Fe (OH)3
[Green colour]
2Fe (OH)3 --------›2 Fe 2 O 3 +3 H2 O
[Rust, Brown colour]

Author's Bio: 

Marcep Inc. is a division of Marcep Group which has a JV with some of the major projects over the world and has entered the Asian market in sharing knowledge to the industry.