It has been 10 years since the bluetongue virus (BTV) first appeared in the United Kingdom. At present, the situation in the UK is very similar to that in the Netherlands. These viruses have begun to spread and spread. Many people believe that the virus has arrived.
BTV can cause bluetongue disease in cattle and sheep. Although the main affected group is sheep, the clinical symptoms of bluetongue disease are very wide, often from little or no signs of disease to death. The virus first entered the Nordic region in the fall of 2006, and the virus spread its "seeds" in many countries, such as Germany and the Netherlands. BTV is a virus that often rags in tropical and subtropical areas.

The emergence of the virus BTV8 in Europe caused very serious consequences, causing high infection rates and mortality in cattle and sheep. Later, researchers discovered that an insect called kluyin can spread blue tongue disease among livestock. As the climate changes, bluetongue is now spreading to northern Europe, and bats are feeding on kullu. BTV can survive the winter in Europe and continue to appear the next day, thus becoming one of the largest outbreaks of the virus, and now BTV is crossing the English Channel into the United Kingdom.
Sequencing foot and mouth disease (FMD)
During the entire outbreak of BTV8, molecular identification plays a key role, that is, detection and characterization of the genetic material of the virus. It usually takes several days to isolate the virus using traditional methods in the laboratory, while the molecular identification takes only a few hours. BTV contains at least 28 different forms, which are called different serotypes. Different serotypes seem to be different to the immune system, and clarifying the popular serotypes is very important for researchers to develop new vaccines. Molecular biology was the first method to determine the serotype of the virus.

In the United Kingdom, BTV's landing seemed to be the outbreak of the most terrible livestock disease (foot-and-mouth disease). On August 2, 2007, a foot-and-mouth disease outbreak was first reported on a pasture in Surrey, South London, and soon Foot-and-mouth disease spread to surrounding farms. Unlike the foot-and-mouth disease outbreak in the United Kingdom in 2001, the molecular biology method for virus diagnosis and characterization did not emerge until 2007. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR was able to amplify and detect the genome of the foot-and-mouth disease virus. Being able to do this means that researchers can effectively control the virus / outbreak in a faster and more precise way.

Historically, after the virus outbreak, sequencing the viral genome can often help researchers evaluate the spread of the virus and the source of the virus. The foot-and-mouth disease outbreak in 2007 represented the beginning of real-time sequencing of the entire genome of the virus. By analyzing the entire genome of the virus, researchers can not only identify the mutated virus, but also take effective measures to curb the virus' progress.
The genome is composed of a single nucleotide, and these nucleotides can be linked together to form a special code. Previous research has found that as the virus spreads across different farms, about 4 nucleotides will change constantly, so when nine changed gaps are discovered, it means that there are still unidentified farms infected with the virus. Of course, molecular epidemiology does not seem to be new at this point. Many studies will study a large number of viruses, which can help researchers to analyze the source of the virus and how the virus drives the outbreak. For example, a virus in Vietnam Research conducted has found that dengue virus can spread in the south, but it regularly moves northward through human movement.

Researchers from the University of Glasgow have discovered the source of the Scottish virus and its spreading mechanism through research. At the same time, they have also identified hot spots for hepatitis C virus transmission, which help researchers bring a whole new perspective.

Defend against Ebola

Seven years later, real-time sequencing of the viral genome during the outbreak showed great potential in the Ebola outbreak in West Africa. Until 2014, like many other viruses, researchers continued to study Egypt based on traditional tracking . They wanted to do their best to find out who would be infected and to find the source of these infections. Of course, at present, this strategy is still very valuable, and it is very important for investigating and controlling the outbreak. However, technology has now developed into molecular biology methods, especially genome sequencing, which can help scientists quickly formulate a outbreak response strategy.

Taking Ebola virus as an example, real-time sequencing of the virus in the sample can quickly find two lineages of Ebola virus in Guinea. At least nine different lineages of Ebola virus were found in the sequencing facility established in Sierra Leone. By linking samples to specific virus lineages, researchers will be able to solve the problem of the disease transmission chain. At the same time, researchers also used the same method in the South American Zika virus outbreak, and sequencing technology can effectively guide the control of the disease.

Real-time sequencing of the virus is not another option for traditional epidemiological research, it just adds a lot of detailed information. It has been 10 years since the foot-and-mouth disease outbreak in 2007. The molecular biology method has been helpful for researchers to carry out diseases. It is critical and important to track, control, and ultimately effectively control the epidemic.

CD genomics platform holds great potential for viral genome sequencing. Comprehensive virus sequences will facilitate interpretation of viral metagenomics data by providing reference genomes, lead to a better understanding of virus diversity, ecology, adaptation and evolution, and enable the prediction of emerging infectious diseases caused by viruses.

Author's Bio: 

CD genomics