A large amount of the food we consume is transformed into glucose (sugar) during the digestion process. The glucose travels in the bloodstream and is expected to be absorbed by the body to provide sustenance and energy for the body.

If the pancreas fails in its insulin production, the glucose level will rise and will eventually lead to diabetes.There will now be a need for medications for diabetes.

The medication to be taken will address the following issues:

- Non-production of insulin
- Insulin resistance
- Too little insulin produced , there is too much glucose unabsorbed
- Too little glucose is absorbed, there is too much insulin unused

The basic treatment of diabetes mellitus including gestational diabetes require a well-planned diet and exercise.The matter concerning the kind of medication to be administered will now differ according to the type of diabetes being managed.

The medication for diabetes type 1 is through in insulin injection in as much as the body needs glucose absorption as soon as possible. Hence, the insulin supplement should enter the bloodstream directly to allow for immediate glucose absorption.

Oral medication is inadvisable in as much as this type of medication will have to pass through the digestive system before it reaches the blood stream. Taking too long will render the diabetic patient weak or worst, lead to his death.

The medication for diabetes type 2 and gestational diabetes are the oral medications, in as much as glucose absorption still takes place but too little to sustain the normal amount required by the body.

In some cases, the diabetic's condition will worsen and oral drug medications will not suffice to allow for glucose absorption. Hence, the type 2 diabetic will now need both oral medication and insulin injections.

The five classes of medications for diabetes are listed herewith for the treatment of the disease:

1. Chlorpropamide. This was one of the group of drugs that was introduced in the United States (US) in 1955. It encourages the beta cell of the body to produce additional insulin.

This is effective in the cure of type 2 diabetes but works only on certain types of type 1 diabetes. Side effects are bloating, low blood sugar level, anemia, heartburn, weight gain, change in taste by about 1% to 3% and sensitivity to sun.

2. Metformin. In 1957, metformin and phenformin were developed. Unluckily, phenformin was pulled out from the market due to several deaths from lactic acidosis in the United States. Metformin was allowed to be used in the US for type 2 diabetes only in 1994 due to the mishaps brought by phenformin.

Its effect is to reduce the overproduction of glucose by the liver. Side effects are nausea, diarrhea, fullness, bloating, cramping, change in taste, lactic acidosis, agitation, headache and deficiency in vitamin b12.

3. Acarbose or Miglitol. Also known also as starch blockers since they delay the digestion of complex carbohydrates. Side effects are diarrhea, abdominal bloating, excess gas, nausea and abdominal pain.

4. Rosiglitazone or Pioglitazone. The first class medicine that reverses the resistance of type 2 diabetes to insulin. Targeting high blood pressure, high triglycerides and low HDL (good) cholesterol.

Side effects are fluid retention, weight gain, swelling of legs, upper respiratory tract infection, muscle ache, headache, sore throat and tooth ache.

5. Repaglinide. This drug stimulates the beta cells to raise the level of insulin different from sulfonylureas by copying the first phase of insulin release after food is eaten by people without diabetes.

Side effects are vomiting, muscle ache, low blood sugar, nausea, upper respiratory tract infection, joint aches, cold and flu like symptoms, diarrhea and back pain.

In all types of medications for diabetes, there is much emphasis on the importance of having a diabetic support team. They will educate and supervise the diabetic patient in monitoring the effects of his medication by constantly determining his blood glucose level.

Author's Bio: 

Alvin Hopkinson is a leading health researcher in the area of natural remedies and diabetes treatment. Discover how you can lower your blood sugar level for good using proven and effective home remedies for diabetes, all without using harmful medications or drugs. Visit his site now at http://www.minusdiabetes.com