PCOS or Polycystic ovary syndrome is a hormonal condition in women in their reproductive age. Women suffering from PCOS may experience excessive male hormone levels or irregular or lengthy menstrual bleeding. The ovaries may develop several follicles but do not release eggs. To date, the exact cause is not known but easily diagnosis and treatment along with weight management can reduce the other complications arising from it such as heart disease and type 2 diabetes.

Symptoms of PCOS
PCOS symptoms and signs can often be noticed during your first menstrual period at the time of puberty. But, sometimes it may come up at a later stage, for instance, when you have gained a hefty amount of weight. The symptoms of PCOS may vary. But a person should have at least two of the symptoms mentioned below.
Irregular periods: Prolonged, irregular or abnormal periods cycles are the most common symptom of PCOS. If you have less than nine periods every year and your cycle takes longer than 35 days, then you should go for a checkup.
Excess male hormone: High levels of androgen may lead to overgrowth of facial and body hair. It may also lead to male pattern baldness.
Polycystic ovaries: This condition leads to enlargement of the ovaries with follicles surrounding the egg. And it may lead to malfunctioning of the ovaries.
These symptoms get severe for obese girls.
When should you visit a doctor?
In case you have any menstrual period concern, then you should immediately visit a doctor. If you have signs of high androgen or infertility symptoms or excessive bleeding, then you should immediately visit a doctor.
Causes of PCOS
The exact PCOS causes are unknown. But, some of the factors which may lead to this condition are:
1. Excessive insulin: Insulin helps the cell to use sugar which the body uses for energy. If your cells don’t use the insulin, then your blood sugar levels will increase and your body may have excessive insulin. This may lead to higher androgen production leading to a problem in ovulation.
2. Low-grade inflammation: This describes the production of white blood cells to fight infection. Women having PCOS have low-grade inflammation which causes polycystic ovaries to produce androgen leading to heart problems.
3. Genetic: Sometimes PCOS is linked to genetic disorders.
Some of the complications which can occur because of PCOS are infertility, miscarriage, type-a diabetes, sleep apnea, anxiety, endometrial cancer, metabolic syndrome, etc.

Treatment methods for PCOS
PCOS treatment largely concentrates on the management of complications and causes like infertility, acne, obesity and controlling the hormones. Further treatment may include proper medication and lifestyle changes.
Lifestyle changes
Your doctor will primarily prescribe a weight loss program for you along with some moderate exercise schedule. Even a slight reduction in your weight around just 5% may bring significant improvement in your condition. Losing weight is the first step towards dealing with PCOS and can help you with infertility too.
In order to control your menstrual cycle, your doctor will prescribe these medications:
1. Birth control pills: Medicines with compounds of progestin and estrogen lower androgen release and maintain estrogen. Once the hormones are balanced, the risk of abnormal bleeding and endometrial cancer decreases. It will also help in acne and extra hair growth.
2. Progestin therapy: You can consume progestin for a period of 10 to 14 days in one or two months to regulate your periods and avoid the risk of endometrial cancer. This will not help in improving your androgen levels or allow you to avoid pregnancy. The progestin IUD is a good option for those who wish to avoid IVF pregnancy.

In order to help you ovulate, some of the treatment recommended is:
Clomid: It is anti-estrogen given in the first menstrual cycle part.
Letrozole: It helps to stimulate the ovaries.
Metformin: It helps in lowering the insulin level and enhancing the resistance.
Gonadotropins: It is given by injection to regulate your hormones.
In order to get rid of excessive hair growth, your doctor will prescribe these medications:
1. Birth control pills: It will lower the androgen production which leads to heavy hair growth.
2. Apart from this, you can also go for electrolysis. This emits an electric current which damages the hair and the follicle completely. However, you may have to go for several sittings.

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PCOS has higher risks of complications in those who are overweight. Hence, it is better to join a weight loss program and get rid of your excess weight under all circumstances, first!