Infertility is defined as the condition not being able to get pregnant with frequent intercourse for at least a year. Female infertility, male infertility or combination of the first two affects the millions of couples worldwide. Approximately 20 percent of couples facing the issues in getting pregnant or having a normal successful delivery.

Causes of Female infertility
Infertility in women can be caused due to numerous factors. The most common causes for infertility in women's are as below:
• Fallopian tubes damage – The fallopian tubes carry the produced eggs from ovaries to the uterus, where the baby develops further. This can be get damaged by number of factors such as scars form after pelvic infections, pelvic surgery or by endometriosis. The damaged tubes prevent sperm for hatching an egg.
• Hormonal problems – The hormonal imbalance can lead to infertility in women. If the body isn’t going through the normal hormonal changes, the ovary will not release the eggs the thickening of the lining of the uterus will not happen at all.
• The male partner doesn’t produce healthy sperm counts – In most infertility associated with male partner if they have history of illness or surgery. A simple test can evaluate the health of pale partner sperm quality.
• Cervical issues – Some women suffered from a condition in which the sperm face difficulties in order to passing through the cervical canal.

Tests of Female infertility
There are several tests for identify the root cause; this includes blood test to check the hormone level and an endometrial biopsy to evaluate the health of the lining of the uterus. The Hysterosalpingography (HSG) involves X – rays or ultrasound of the reproductive organs to check if the tubes are blocked or not. During this process a doctor injects either saline or dye air into the cervix which travel through the fallopian tubes. Another test is Laparoscopy in which a doctor places a laparoscope (a slender tube fitted with a tiny camera) through a small cut near the belly button. This will help the doctor to check the growth of uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries. This also allows doctor to check if the fallopian tubes are blocked.

Treatment of Female infertility
Infertility in women can be treated by one or more of the following ways:
• Treatment by taking hormones to check hormone imbalance, short menstrual cycle or endometriosis
• Adopt medication to stimulate ovulation process
• Remove a potential infection by taking antibiotics
• Enhance fertility by using supplements
• Removal of blockage or scar tissues from fallopian pelvic areas or uterus by minor surgery

Prevention of Female infertility
Infertility can prevent by adopting following ways:
• Maintaining normal body weight – The woman with underweight or overweight are at high risk of having ovulation disorders. Exercise regularly to maintain ideal body weight.
• Avoid alcohol consumption and quit smoking – High consumption of alcohol can let to infertility in women as alcohol can adversely affect the health of a developing fetus. If you wish to become pregnant you must avoid alcohol consumption and always avoid alcohol and smoking while you're pregnant.
• Reduce stress – Stress also led to infertility. Try to reduce stress before trying to get pregnant.

Author's Bio: 

SCI Healthcare, Founder & Director Dr Shivani Sachdev Gour has experienced more than 10years in fertility services. Dr. Shivani Gour completed her graduation and speciality training in Gynaecology and Obstetrics from Mumbai.