Adenomyosis, often called "immortal cancer," presents a significant health challenge, primarily affecting women. Among its distressing symptoms, dysmenorrhea is one of the most prevalent, afflicting approximately 64.8% to 77.8% of patients. The relentless monthly recurrence of pain takes a toll on those affected, posing a substantial challenge in terms of treatment—the majority of individuals with adenomyosis experience dysmenorrhea.

For many women, the onset of menstruation can feel like crossing the threshold into a realm of excruciating pain. Dysmenorrhea, a common hallmark of adenomyosis, originates from the trapping of focal bleeding within the myometrium, leading to its accumulation and subsequent swelling, ultimately resulting in pain.

Dysmenorrhea experienced by adenomyosis patients is uniquely characterized by its secondary and progressive nature. Typically, pain begins several days before menstruation, intensifying noticeably and gradually subsiding after menstruation has concluded. Patients sometimes endure discomfort for several days following menstruation as congestion and edema persist, prolonging the pain. Severe cases of dysmenorrhea may require multiple painkillers daily for relief.

For those for whom conventional pain relief methods prove ineffective due to long-term contraceptives and progesterone drug use, herbal medicine such as Fuyan Pill can offer an alternative with minimal side effects while effectively alleviating pain.

Additionally, practical measures like consuming warm water or brown sugar water can relieve symptoms. Activities like foot soaking and regular exercise can facilitate the discharge of menstrual blood, thereby improving dysmenorrhea. Women must maintain a balanced diet outside of menstruation, avoiding cold, spicy, and irritant-rich foods while incorporating more fresh vegetables and fruits into their meals. Regular sleep patterns and a calm mindset also contribute to overall well-being.

Beyond dysmenorrhea, adenomyosis manifests in other common symptoms:

1. Increased Menstrual Volume: Patients often experience heavier menstrual flow, which is closely linked to the enlargement of the uterus. As the uterus grows, so does the surface area of the endometrium, resulting in increased menstrual bleeding.

2. Prolonged Menstrual Period: Due to lesions within the myometrium, the uterus's contractile capacity diminishes, making it challenging to control the amount and duration of uterine bleeding. Consequently, patients may endure extended and heavy menstruation.

3. Anemia: Excessive menstrual bleeding, without prompt supplementation, can lead to anemia. This condition is frequently observed in adenomyosis patients with heavy menstruation. Adequate dietary intake, focusing on green leafy vegetables and animal liver, is essential for at-risk people. In severe cases, medication prescribed by a healthcare professional may be necessary.

4. Enlarged Uterus: Uterine enlargement is common, particularly before and after menstruation. A healthy uterus typically measures between 5.5-7.5cm in length, 4.5-5.5cm in width, and 3.0-4.0cm in thickness. Adenomyosis often results in a larger uterus, which can manifest as abdominal bulging, akin to a 20-week pregnancy in some cases.

5. Low Back Pain: This discomfort often stems from referred pain. During menstruation, pain originating in the menstrual region may radiate to other areas, with varying degrees of intensity and occurrence.

6. Anal Distension: Enlargement of the uterus, especially during menstruation, can compress the rectum due to its proximity. This compression becomes more pronounced during menstruation, leading to anal distension.

7. Infertility: Adenomyosis substantially increases the risk of infertility. The presence of uterine lesions affects the uterine environment, rendering it inhospitable for embryo implantation and increasing the likelihood of miscarriage. Furthermore, the longer the duration of adenomyosis, the lower the chances of successful pregnancy. Early attempts at conception are thus advisable.

Women encountering abnormal symptoms should proactively seek relevant medical examinations and follow targeted treatment strategies based on their test results. Early intervention can significantly improve the prognosis and quality of life for those dealing with adenomyosis.

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