Water treatment plants treat water from various sources like rivers and lakes. Water from these sources has to be purified to remove floating objects like sticks and other solids of larger dimensions, finer particulate matters, color, odor, pollutants, and harmful bacteria and microbes.

The water entering the treatment plant passes through intake screens to remove floating objects and larger insoluble materials. Back-flushing of the screen with air is done periodically to clear the screen and maintain the effectiveness of the screen.

Coagulants are added to the water to facilitate the subsequent sedimentation process. Water containing the rest of the impurities is taken to a sedimentation tank containing sand filters to remove suspended solids. Sand is then recovered and cleaned so that it can be reused.

The next process is the bacterial disinfection and degradation of the organic compounds by treatment with ozone gas. Ozone, being unstable, is produced onsite by the use of oxygen in an electric discharge unit. The ozone thus produced is bubbled through water. Residual ozone is then converted to oxygen gas and vented out to the atmosphere.

Science and technology has given birth to many procedures and methodologies which are useful in the conversation of the water. Amongst various, reverse osmosis (RO) is a filtration method which easily removes several types of large molecules and ions from the solutions.

In the reverse osmosis systems, the solvent naturally moves from an area having low solute concentration via membrane to the area having high solute concentration. This system is most common process which is used for purification of the drinking water and also salt and other substances are removed from the seawater.

Packaged water treatment plants are used to purify and reduce the COD levels in the water. Different processes are used in these plants which include precipitation, coagulation, ion exchange and reverse osmosis. These plants are widely used for separating suspended solids from river and lake water.

There are several types of waste, municipal waste (household waste) that a fluid is one of the environmental problems that are very well interfere with the existing watercourse. It is because of some content in the waste, including chemical and biological rubbish. These residues can in principle be broken down by itself in nature, but it will take a long time for neutering.

To accelerate the neutralization of the waste treatment system may need to decipher the biological and chemical substances in water that can be accepted by nature without harming fish or plants. Process that usually takes many years becomes nature, but with this system, it only takes 12 to 24 hours.

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