Adenomyosis, a benign condition characterized by the infiltration of the basal layer of the endometrium into the myometrium, typically affects women aged 30 to 50, often in conjunction with other conditions like hysteromyoma (uterine fibroids) or endometriosis. While the precise cause of adenomyosis remains unclear, factors such as heredity, uterine injury (e.g., curettage or cesarean section), elevated estrogen levels, and viral infections are believed to contribute to its development. The rising incidence of cesarean sections and curettage procedures has increased this condition's prevalence.

The primary symptoms of adenomyosis are heavy menstrual bleeding (menorrhagia) and progressively severe dysmenorrhea (painful menstruation). Dysmenorrhea in adenomyosis is often severe, which is called "chronic cancer." Patients experience persistent lower abdominal and lower back pain, anal discomfort, nausea, and vomiting. These symptoms can lead to complications such as infertility and anemia due to excessive bleeding.

Progressive dysmenorrhea is a key indicator of adenomyosis. As the disease progresses, the uterine cavity enlarges, affecting uterine contractions and causing excessive menstrual bleeding. This can result in anemia, leading to symptoms like dizziness and fatigue. Dysmenorrhea typically worsens over time, with the ectopic growth of endometrial tissue into the myometrium exacerbating pain. Conventional painkillers often provide little relief. Some women may experience pain from uterine fibroids alongside primary dysmenorrhea.

Infertility is a significant consequence of adenomyosis. The longer a woman has adenomyosis, the lower her chances of becoming pregnant. The causes of infertility in adenomyosis include:

1. Uterine Cavity Environment: Adenomyosis disrupts the uterine environment, hindering normal embryo development.

2. Tubal Issues: The condition can lead to tubal obstruction and impaired insemination.

3. Inflammation-Induced Obstruction: Inflammation can cause tubal adhesion and obstruction, further contributing to infertility.

Women experiencing progressive dysmenorrhea and heavy menstrual bleeding should consider the possibility of adenomyosis. A gynecological examination after a thorough menstrual clean-up can diagnose adenomyosis based on an enlarged uterus with thickened myometrium and uneven echogenicity.

Early-stage adenomyosis with small foci can be effectively treated with herbal medicine Fuyan Pill. This remedy promotes blood circulation, alleviates blood stasis, and resolves ectopic foci. In cases of severe bleeding, hemostatic treatment can complement the therapy.

Surgery may be necessary for cases where adenomyosis has caused significant uterine enlargement. Patients without fertility requirements but seeking improved quality of life can opt for early interventional therapy. Those with no fertility or quality-of-life concerns can consider hysterectomy. Fuyan Pill can also aid in post-operative recovery.

For pregnant women with adenomyosis, safeguarding the fetus is a complex process. The risk of miscarriage is higher in the first three months of pregnancy. To ensure a safe pregnancy:

1. Extended Monitoring: Pregnancy protection measures should extend beyond the first three months, with regular check-ups and ultrasound examinations to monitor fetal development.

2. Seek Immediate Medical Attention: In labor pains or vaginal bleeding cases, seeking prompt medical attention is crucial to determine the situation and establish appropriate fetal protection measures.

3. Balanced Nutrition: Avoid excessive dietary supplements, as overconsumption can negatively impact fetal development. Focus on a balanced diet, including high-fiber foods, while supplementing folic acid and vitamins.

4. Manage Workloa*: Adequate rest and balanced work hours are essential to prevent overexertion and reduce the risk of miscarriage due to exhaustion.

5. Emotional Well-being: Maintaining a positive emotional state is vital. Engage in activities that reduce anxiety and tension during pregnancy.

6. Sexual Activity: Avoiding sexual activity, especially in the first three months, as early pregnancy carries a risk of weak embryo attachment, making the uterus susceptible to contractions that could lead to miscarriage.

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