Today, the world of IT is progressing at a very high pace. The transformation from huge computer servers to personal computers, laptops, mobile phones and now smartphones have changed in a very short span of time. We’re living in an age where we can’t imagine our lives without smartphones. A smartphone is the collection of multiple mobile applications. Hence, mobile applications have a preference over websites because they are more feasible to use than websites. 


There are many operating systems supporting mobile applications, the most popular operating systems are Android and iOS. With the rapid need for mobile applications, many android app development companies are providing their android application development services to their customers/clients. 

Programming Languages used in Android App Development

For the development of an android application, one should have a command on two programming languages: 

  • JAVA 
  • XML (Extensible Markup Language)

Java is a general-purpose programming language that can run on all platforms that supports Java. Application developers write the code once and can use that java code anywhere without recompilation. XML is used to describe data, in android XML is used for designing interfaces and layouts as it is a lightweight language that doesn’t become heavy on the processors. Therefore, these languages are the prerequisites for developing an android application. That is why there is a high demand for java programmers in android app development companies.

Tools/Software used for Android App Development

In order to implement these languages, there is a need for specified tools/ software for the execution that includes:

  • Android Studio/ Eclipse (IDEs)
  • Java Development Kit

There are Integrated Development Environments (IDEs) like Android Studio and Eclipse that compile the code and run with just a simple click. Android Studio is preferred over Eclipse because there is no need to download Android SDK as it comes along, unlike in the case of Eclipse. Android Virtual Device is also included in IDE; it is an emulator that helps the developer to test the working of the application.  Along with these tools, the Java Development Kit (JDK) is required to support java language that will be using in Android Studio. If you have this basic knowledge about the android app development, you can scrutinize android app development companies before assigning your project, by assessing their development environments.

Components of Android Application

The fundamental components of the android application are the following:

  • Activities
  • Services
  • Content Providers
  • Intent
  • Broadcast receivers
  • Widgets
  • Notifications

The application manifest file AndroidManifest.xml connects these components where it describes its interaction. It is the configuration file used to assist all the activities. 


Activity is a User Interface, presenting a single screen where the current action takes place, for example, dialing a number, typing/sending a message. A display window is provided for each activity for user interfacing. Every android application has more than one activity from which other activities are interconnected, called child activities. There is a stack termed as back stack. When a new display screen is opened, the previous one pushed to a back stack and does not resume until the user presses the back button.


Service is a component that handles the background processing of an application. It does not provide user interface but they are combined with other components like activities. It is an invisible component that does not terminate even the user switched to another application. Either it could be music playing in the background or email updating when you receive it in your inbox.

Content Providers:

A content provider is a component used to encapsulate a set of data and as the name indicates it provides content of one structured process to another on request. The set of data can be stored in a file system, database (for example SQLite). This data is kept private and can be accessed through the Content providers on request. For instance, this data includes email addresses, contact details, and biodata, etc.


The intent is a communication medium. These are instant messages within application for initiating a new activity or getting result from other activity. For example, sending and receiving messages from your friend.

Broadcast Receivers:

Broadcast receivers are used to respond broadcast messages either from the system or from other application or network. It can be a notification of your mobile’s batter level or any file downloading from the network.


Widgets are the small visual representation of the application that is visible on the home screen of your device. For example, time and weather updates displaying on the main screen of your device or email application etc.


Notifications are the alert messages that are used to draw user attention about the particular event occurred. For instance, Messenger popups, email notifications etc. 


The above-mentioned components are commonly used in a standard android application. The use and selection of components totally depends upon the requirements of application. Having understanding of above-described basic knowledge, you can explain the android app development company about the required components before assigning your project.

Author's Bio: 

Syed Muhammad Anwer is a digital marketing specialist and blogger currently working at TaskQue, an online task management software. His unique personality traits, passion and thirst for knowledge has turned him into an digital marketing expert.