TAVI or Transcatheter aortic valve implantation is a minimally invasive procedure used to treat stenotic aortic valve. Aortic stenosis is one of the most cone cardiological problem faced by the people nowadays. The problem severely affects the flow of blood in the heart by blocking its pathways. The human heart is an extremely sensitive organ that functions 24 hours a day without taking any rest to supply blood to different organs of the body and regulate various metabolic activities as well. Human heart consists of four chambers which are separated by the valves. The aortic valve regulates the flow of blood from the left ventricle to the left aorta and also ensures that there is no free flow of blood. In patients suffering from aortic stenosis, the aortic valve gets damaged and loses its elasticity due to excessive accumulation of plaque (unwanted cholesterol, fat and salt particles) or old age. The problem can prove to be very fatal if not treated on time and requires immediate medical attention. Traditionally the blockage could only be removed by an open heart surgery but now it has become possible to achieve the same results by minimally invasive procedures like TAVR and TAVI.

The procedure is very simple and can be carried out in two ways, either by replacing the original, damaged valve with a new valve or by implanting the new valve inside the original valve without removing the original one. The new valve is created artificially using living tissues obtained from animals like cows and pigs. Both the procedures are carried out in the same way by the use of a catheter fixed with a balloon on one of its tips. The artificial valve is placed inside this catheter, which is introduced inside the patient's body via the groin or by making 2 to 3 small incisions on the side of the patient's chest. After the catheter is introduced inside the patient's body, it is slowly moved towards the affected valve and once it is in position, the balloon is inflated so as to make way for the placement of the new valve. Once the valve is in position, the balloon is deflated and removed from the patient's body along with the catheter.

As far as the open heart surgery is concerned, the patient's chest is cut wide open and the heart is directly operated upon. Since the incision is very long, there are very high chances of infection. The wound needs to be cleaned and sterilized properly at regular intervals. Also, the recovery period after an open heart surgery is very long and the patient has to stay bedridden for quite a long time. Open heart surgeries involve a lot of blood loss, thereby making it unsuitable for a patient suffering from anaemia, high blood pressure and diabetes. On the other hand, aortic valve implantation is a minimally invasive procedure which means that the incisions are very small thereby ensuring minimal chances of infection and a higher survival rate. The recovery period is very short as the wound heals in no time. The patient is discharged within a day or two. However certain physical activities may be restricted for some time. The procedures involve minimal blood loss and hence are the best option for people who are not considered to be eligible for the traditional open heart surgery.

Although transcatheter aortic valve implantation is not as popular as the traditional open heart surgery owing to the fact that it is a comparatively newer procedure but it has been seen that more and more people are opting for the procedure and in no time it might take over the traditional open heart surgery.

Just like any other medical procedure, there are certain risks associated with transcatheter aortic valve implantation as well. The ink used during the procedure can trigger allergic reactions in certain patients and affect their kidneys or liver. There are also slight risks of a clot and scar formation. Hence it should be made sure that all the screening and tests are conducted properly to ensure whether you are a good candidate for either of the two surgeries or not. After both the procedures, be it traditional or minimally invasive, the surgeon sets certain guidelines to be followed by the patient for healthy recovery. Make sure you follow these religiously and stick to a healthy lifestyle.

When we talk about heart surgeries, the major things that concern us are the risks and complications associated with it. Heart surgeries are usually quite complicated as the heart is an extremely sensitive organ. Heart surgeries can either be performed traditionally (open heart surgery) or through a minimally invasive procedure (TAVI, TAVR, balloon valvuloplasty). Both the procedures aim at improving the condition of the heart and restoring its normal functioning. TAVI/TAVR Surgery in India is a comparatively newer concept and this is the reason why a majority of people are unaware of its various benefits over traditional open heart surgery. If you are planning to undergo the procedure, you can consult the top heart surgeon in Gurgaon, who has performed various successful transcatheter aortic valve implantations/replacements. Since the procedure is minimally invasive, the complications are also greatly reduced, making it one of the safest heart surgeries. Both, transcatheter aortic valve implantation and transcatheter aortic valve replacement, are used for the treatment of aortic stenosis.

Author's Bio: 

Rahul Tyagi is a freelance content writer & blogger based in the India and he has been in this writing profession for the last 4 years. I keep on writing health-related topics and publish it.