In the realm of clinical practice, male infertility often stems from two prevalent conditions: Oligospermia and necrospermia. While expectant mothers meticulously manage their bodies and diets during pregnancy, it is equally crucial for prospective fathers to actively participate in the process of conception.

The World Health Organization has established specific criteria for semen quality, including parameters like semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm motility, progressive motility, and normal morphology. Oligozoospermia, asthenozoospermia, and teratozoospermia are conditions where these parameters fall below the recommended thresholds.

A multitude of factors contribute to a decline in sperm quality, ranging from genetic factors, medications, and diseases to testicular injuries. Lifestyle choices also play a significant role in this context. Therefore, beyond medical treatments, adopting healthy lifestyles and dietary habits is vital for preventing and managing these conditions.

Here are some practical lifestyle adjustments to consider:

1. Maintain Scrotal Temperature: The temperature of the scrotum significantly impacts sperm production and maturation. To mitigate heat-related issues, consider wearing loose-fitting pants, avoiding prolonged sitting, refraining from stomach sleeping, and limiting sauna and hot spring visits.

2. Quit Smoking, Alcohol, and Spicy Foods: Smoking and excessive alcohol consumption are detrimental to sperm quality. Smoking reduces sperm count and motility, while alcohol can negatively affect testosterone levels. Additionally, opting for a milder diet and reducing spicy food intake can be beneficial during the preconception period.

3. Weight Management: Obesity can disrupt hormone balance and hinder sperm production. Engaging in regular, appropriate exercise and maintaining a healthy weight range is essential. Post-exercise stretching can help alleviate the effects of metabolic byproducts on sperm quality.

4. Emotional Well-being: Emotional stability is crucial during the preconception period. Prolonged emotional stress can affect the nervous and endocrine systems, potentially leading to disruptions in spermatogenesis. Thus, maintaining a positive emotional state is vital.

5. Scientific Dietary Adjustments: High-quality protein and vitamins are essential for semen production and reproductive health. Include lean meat, poultry, eggs, fish, shrimp, soy products, grains, wheat germ oil, green leafy vegetables, egg yolks, and nuts in your diet. Pay attention to trace elements like zinc, which is crucial for sperm production and can be found in seafood.

In addition to dietary therapy, various diagnostic and therapeutic approaches can be considered:

1. Medication Treatment: For cases where conditions like prostatitis or inflammation of accessory glands contribute to oligoasthenoteratozoospermia, medication can be effective. Traditional Chinese medicine, such as Diuretic and Anti-inflammatory Pilll, may improve fertility.

2. Surgical Treatment: Surgical correction may be necessary for conditions like cryptorchidism or varicocele. Procedures such as orchidopexy or high ligation of the spermatic vein can address these issues.

3. Assisted Reproductive Medications: In cases with unexplained causes of oligoasthenoteratozoospermia, various medications can be considered, including testosterone, synthetic testosterone derivatives, glucocorticoids, clomiphene, tamoxifen, HCG, and HMG.

The choice of treatment depends on the specific cause and severity of oligoasthenoteratozoospermia. A comprehensive evaluation by a medical professional is essential to determine the most suitable approach for each case. Remember, proactive measures, including lifestyle changes and dietary adjustments, can significantly contribute to improving male fertility and increasing the chances of successful conception.

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