The testicles are the essential part of the male body and the most vulnerable part of the male body. It has two main functions.

1. Produce androgen testosterone. The role of testosterone is to initiate male puberty, promote the development of external genitalia and accessory gonads, maintain male secondary sexual characteristics, and maintain sexual desire and normal sexual function.

2. Produce sperm. After puberty, the varicose sperm ducts of the testes continue to produce sperm to maintain male fertility.
Therefore, men need to protect the testicles to avoid trauma and various diseases that affect the function of the testicles.

Prevent five scrotal and testicular diseases

I. The redness behind the "diamond" - epididymitis

Cause: The back edge of the testicles is the epididymis, where the sperm is temporarily stored after production.

Epididymitis, a common disease in people around 30 years old, is mostly due to delayed urinary tract infection by bacteria again, resulting in germs entering the epididymis via the lumen of the vas deferens. Posterior urethritis, prostatitis, and vesiculitis often occur. The location can be unilateral on both sides, and the attack time can be urgent and slow.

Symptoms: The scrotum is red, swollen and painful, sensitive to touch, and painful when urinating. The scrotum is painful at rest, but the signs are relieved when lying on your back.

Treatment: Prescribe some antibiotics to you to relieve the acute pain. Then apply cold compresses to the testicle while padding it up. You can use a rolled-up sock or medical gauze to place under the testicles. If you can't put it on yourself, you can wear a pair of fixed trunks - it will also reduce the uncomfortable cramping sensation in the spermatic cord area.

If it is chronic epididymitis, you can choose herbal medicine Diuretic and Anti-inflammatory Pill for treatment.

Prevention: Although men are much less likely than women to have a urinary tract infection, the consequences can be severe when it does occur. You must seek immediate medical attention if you have a burning sensation when you urinate.

II. Bacterial erosion of the "diamond" - testicular inflammation

Cause: Mostly due to the spread of epididymitis directly to the testicles, caused by bacteria. The mumps virus usually causes acute orchitis in children.

Symptoms: Similar to orchitis, testicular redness and fever are not significantly more intense. The testicles are swollen unilaterally or bilaterally, painful on pressure, and the scrotal skin is visibly red and hot to the touch.

Treatment: In severe orchitis with loss of fertility, doctors use painkillers and antibiotics to make the testicles cold. If not appropriately treated during the acute phase, bacterial orchitis can form abscesses to develop into chronic orchitis.

Prevention: Children can be vaccinated against mumps.

III. A few worms into the scrotum - varicocele

Cause: Varicocele prevalence accounts for 10% of men aged 30 to 40. It occurs 90% of the time on the left side and is due to stagnation of blood flow in the spermatic veins, which causes dilatation, tortuosity, and lengthening of the venous plexus vessels. Kidney tumors can also cause varicocele. The reason why varicocele is essential is that it may be associated with testicular atrophy and impaired sperm production, leading to infertility.

Symptoms: There may be a vague pain, like a small bag of worms into the scrotum, which may not be felt. However, the varicose vein plexus can be seen or felt in the spermatic cord when standing up. A few with heavier varicose veins can be seen while increasing abdominal pressure by swelling the abdomen with force. In severe cases, the scrotum will swell, and the back pain will last for a long time, but you can rest flat on your back.

Treatment: Diagnostic ultrasound, infrared contact scrotal thermometry, and other special tests are used to detect varicose veins and the doctor determines whether your symptoms need to be treated or not. At this time, either the veins are closed by injectable medication or by ligature, a minor surgery requiring anesthesia and taking about half an hour.

Prevention: Varicocele is a type of venous tumor, and the body is at risk of developing new varicocele many times.

IV. Third testicle-seminal cyst

Cause: Benign cysts arising from the spermatozoa in the testicles and testicular area, swollen bulging masses mostly as big as sugar, known as the third testicle, which is fortunately very rare.

Symptoms: Although there is no pain, the swollen bulge looks like a round ball growing on the testicle and can be explored alone. The seminal cyst is glowing under the light of a flashlight in a dark room.

Treatment: No treatment is required at all. If mass removal is advocated, your doctor can perform surgery on you.

Prevention: Avoid trauma to the testicles and scrotum. Have a regular sex life and avoid prolonged urges.

V. Excess fluid - scrotal hydatid cyst

Causes: Excess water production in the tissues wrapped between one or both testicular membrane layers. It sometimes occurs with testicular injury or testicular infection, but the cause cannot be found in many cases.

Symptoms: The scrotum is swollen and bulging, and sometimes the cyst is large but not painful.

Treatment: The excess tissue water can be drained by a minor surgery under anesthesia. In addition, the doctor has to surgically close those tiny holes in the scrotum where fluid is leaking.

Prevention: The testicular area should be observed with good lifestyle habits and hygiene.

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