Pulp and Papers Manufacturing Industry | Pulp and Papers Manufacturing Industry In India | Pulp and Papers Training In Mumbai India
The pulp and paper industry comprises companies that make use of wood as raw material and produce pulp, paper, paperboard and other cellulose-based products.

The pulp and paper sector is a significant energy user and currently ranks fourth in the industrial sector for its energy use. In 2006, the sector consumed 6.7 EJ of energy, which represents 6% of global industrial energy use. Despite high energy use, the sector has a low CO2 intensity due to extensive use of biomass as fuel (in 2006, the emissions of the sector reached 184 Mt, representing only 3% of global emissions in 2006) The total energy saving potential in the sector through improved process efficiency and systems/life cycle improvements has been estimated to be in the range of 2.1-2.4 EJ/year.


There are two types of Pulping i.e chemical pulping and mechanical pulping.


For the production of mechanical pulp, wood is ground against a water lubricated rotating stone. The heat generated by grinding softens the lignin binding the fibers and the mechanized forces separate the fibers to form groundwood. During the second half of the 20th century, newer mechanical techniques using ‘refiners' were developed. In a refiner, woodchips are subjected to intensive shearing forces between a rotating steel disc and a fixed plate. In subsequent modifications to this process, the woodchips are pre-softened by heat (thermo-mechanical pulp - TMP) to make the fibrillation more effective. The resulting pulp is light-colored and has longer fibers. A further development of the thermo-mechanical pulp is CTMP pulp, in which the wood chips are impregnated with a chemicals treatment with sodium sulfite before the grinding. The end result is an even lighter-colored pulp with better strength characteristics. After grinding, the pulp is sorted by screening to suitable grades. It can then be bleached with peroxide for use in higher value-added products. Mechanical pulp consists of a mix of whole fibers and fiber fragments of different sizes. Paper containing a high level of mechanical pulp and a smaller level of chemical pulp is called ‘wood-containing paper'. Mechanical pulp gives the paper a yellowish/grey tone with high opacity and a very smooth surface Mechanical pulping provides a good yield from the pulpwood because it uses the whole of the log except for the bark, but the energy requirement for refining is high and can only be partly compensated by using the bark as fuel.


For chemical pulp, logs are first chopped into wood chips which are then cooked with chemicals under high pressure. Cooking removes lignin and separates the wood into cellulose fibers. The resulting slurry contains loose but intact fibers which maintain their strength. During the process, approximately half of the wood dissolves into what is called black liquor. The cooked pulp is then washed and screened to achieve a more uniform quality. The black liquor is separated out from the pulp before the bleaching process. The most chemical pulp is made by the sulfate (or Kraft) process, in which caustic soda and sodium sulfate ‘cook' the woodchips. In the unbleached stage, a dark brown but very strong pulp results and this can be bleached to a high brightness if required. The sulfite pulping process is an alternative method best suited for specialty pulp which can be easily bleached, generally with hydrogen peroxide. These pulps fulfill the demand for ‘chlorine-free' products in the hygiene paper sector and also in printing and writing papers. The yield in both chemical processes is much lower than in the manufacture of mechanical pulp, as the lignin is completely dissolved and separated from the fibers. However, the lignin from the sulfate and some sulfite processes can be burnt as a fuel oil substitute. In modern mills, recovery boiler operations and the controlled burning of bark and other residues makes the chemical pulp mill a net energy producer which can often supply power to the grid or steam to local domestic heating plants.
A chemical pulp or paper is called woodfree, although in practice a small percentage of mechanical fiber is usually accepted.

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Marcep Inc. is a division of Marcep Group which has a JV with some of the major projects over the world and has entered the Asian market in sharing knowledge to the industry.