Quadriparesis is a clinical condition which results in the weakness of all four limb, such as both arms and thighs are affected due to this condition. Quadriparesis also referred as tetraparesis. There is a significant difference between Quadriparesis and Quadriplegia.

Quadriparesis results in the weakness of all four limbs, Whereas quadriplegia or tetraplegia are associated with complete paralysis of the four limbs. Quadriparesis is temporary whereas Quadriplegia is permanent.

Causes

The following are several causes of Quadriparesis (Tetraparesis)

 An infection such as polio can also cause this condition.
 A nontraumatic spinal cord trauma, due to cancer, arthritis, inflammation, infections or disc degeneration.
 Several congenital conditions like muscular dystrophy and cerebral palsy may contribute to this clinical condition. In cerebral palsy quadriparetic palsy is the most severe form of palsy.
 Typically, the individual eventually presents with acute muscular weakness, weak or absent deep tendon reflexes, and in some instances, the participation of the lymph, brainstem and bronchial muscles.
 An injury or trauma to the spinal cord during vehicle accidents may cause this condition by rupturing the disc and ligaments.
 The other significant cause of quadriparesis is degenerative neurological conditions.

Signs and Symptoms

Individuals with quadriparesis may possess different signs and symptoms depending upon a difference in the progression and movement in their limbs. Some individuals might have weakness in the limbs and might lack a motor controller.

However, some patients may experience a significant impact of paralysis. Some patients can have comparatively excellent motor abilities. Some individuals might also have sensory reduction and kidney dysfunction.

Diagnosis

For the diagnosis, a complete neurologic evaluation is consequently crucial to spot the pattern of the nerves that are involved. It will ordinarily be accompanied by imaging reports to find the field of harm-causing the neurological and motor fatigue. These observations will establish the treatment strategy depending upon the clinical signs and symptoms.

Risk factors

A spinal cord injury may result due to many factors. The most common cause of an injury is an accident, and it can occur to anyone. However specific factors can lead to a higher risk of sustaining a spinal cord injury, such as:

 Careless driving overspeeding
 Drunk driving increases the risk
 Older than 65 years increases the chance of accidental falls
 Males are at higher risk 80% of spinal cord injuries occur to males
 Medical history of the joint disorders

Treatment

Surgical removal of intervertebral discs that are bulging to and controlling spinal nerves, and also of other operative causes of cord compression.

Treatment of metabolic derangements and post-inflammatory ailments is also essential in treating quadriparesis.
Physical therapy can be very beneficial in this condition because it maintains the muscles flexible and stronger during the nerve healing.

Bowel and bladder care is an essential part of treatment.
Wheelchairs can be used to perform routine tasks for those who are suffering from motor impairment.

References

1. Lim, R., Sathasivam, S., & Larner, A. J. (2008). An acute evolving flaccid quadriparesis in an elderly woman. PLoS medicine, 5(8), e180.
2. Kuban, K. C., O'Shea, T. M., Allred, E. N., Fichorova, R. N., Heeren, T., Paneth, N., ... & ELGAN Study Investigators. (2015). The breadth and type of systemic inflammation and the risk of adverse neurological outcomes in extremely low gestation newborns. Pediatric neurology, 52(1), 42-48.
3. Gonzalez, M. N., Sethi, A., McGavin, J., & Trehan, G. (2018). Acute-Onset Quadriparesis After Placement of Thoracic Epidural: A Case Report. A&A practice.
4. Torres-Merino, S., Moreno-Sandoval, H. N., del Rocio Thompson-Bonilla, M., Leon, J. A. O., Gomez-Conde, E., Leon-Chavez, B. A., ... & Gonzalez-Barrios, J. A. (2018). Association Between rs3833912/rs16944 SNPs and Risk for Cerebral Palsy in Mexican Children. Molecular neurobiology, 1-12.
5. Fehre, K. S., Weber, M. A., Hensel, C., & Weidner, N. (2016). Tetraparesis as clinical correlate of subacute cervical flexion myelopathy. The journal of spinal cord medicine, 39(3), 359-362.

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