Enzymes are molecules that accelerate chemical reactions in biological organisms, including plants, animals, and bacteria. They are often referred to as catalysts because they initiate or accelerate these chemical reactions. In apples, various enzymes are involved in metabolic pathways leading to growth, maturation and browning. The name of the enzyme ends with "ase", while the first part of the name usually refers to the starting materials used to produce the new compounds.

Once the seeds have absorbed enough water, the enzymes in the apple seeds become active. The hormone in the seed is an important member of regulating development. Even if it's just seed, it produces powerful hormones to promote growth, which causes apples to start germination and grow up fast.

Enzymes can break down storage molecules into smaller, more transportable components. Amylase converts starch to sugar maltose, while proteases convert proteins into amino acids. Once apples reach their maximum size, they begin to get matured. They gradually turn from hard, green and some sour taste fruits to soft, tasty fruits that animals and people want. This is a smart evolutionary strategy to ensure that the seeds mature before apples are eaten.

Another hormone, ethylene, is responsible for triggering the maturation process and subsequent developmental changes. Amylase helps convert starch into shorter sugar molecules, including fructose, glucose and sucrose, which makes apples sweeter and more juice. Pectinase accelerates the decomposition of pectin, which leads to a softer fruit, and chlorophyllase breaks down chlorophyll, making the apple epidermis begin to become rosy. Other enzymes convert large organic molecules into smaller components that produce and volatilize the aroma.

Unfortunately, Apple cannot always remain sweet and juicy. The skin of the fruit is easily bruised or cut. When this happens, oxygen enters the cells in the apple, and an enzyme called polyphenol oxidase combines oxygen with other molecules to form an intermediate called orthoquinone. They react with amino acids to produce a unique brown color. Browning can be slowed down by some methods such as coating apples with sugar or lemon juice.

We have already known the enzyme activity in apples, so how does the enzyme act as a catalyst in other reactions? One of the most important ways of working with enzymes is: in the human body, when our digestive system breaks down the food we eat, enzymes help accelerate the chemical reactions that occur, so we can use these calories as fuel to provide the body with power.

Enzymatic activity also helps to accelerate chemical reactions in some products that are often used or consumed. For example, many cheese manufacturers must understand how enzymes promote cheese production. Some cheese makers use lactic acid to make cheese, which is safe for people who are lactose-resistant.

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