Through sociology first emerged and spread in Europe. After First World War 1 the united state took the lead. There are two primary reasons for the shift. First as the United States become a leading industrial nation. It had a extensive Universities system to sustain the growth of sociology. Second the United States began to dominate the study of sociology by default. The political and economic disruption in Europe after World war first and the rise of totalitarian governments in some European countries created a poor environment for the free inquiry sociology requires. A further result was the migration of many social scientists from Europe to the United state with the growing turmoil in Europe.
When write of a climate of free inquiry or the freedom to pursue ideas no mater how unpopular I am thinking terms of degrees of this kind of freedom. There are of course limits to free inquiry in the United States and these limits change from time to time. There where purges if liberal professors during the 1890s and the McCarthy era of the early 1950s Goldman 1953s. there have been other less widespread cases as well. But compared with many countries in Europe after World war1the repression and political polarization was miner In the United states.
A brief look at United States history at the turn of the century is useful in understanding the development of sociology in this country. But the 1890s the United States was changing rapidly. It was still primarily a rural nation as late as 1880s for example our 70 percent of the population lived in rural areas in 188. Whereas only a little more than one half did by 1910 The United States moved from a primarily agrarian economy during the Civil war to a leading industrial nation by the early 1900s. As result of this rapid change there was family description poverty and more visible crime. Bigger and bigger organization was putting smaller ones out of business. American were less accustomed to these problems of effective government planning in dealing with them.
This extensive change and social problems of in the 1890s brought new political movements. The first massive movement in the united state calling for major reform with government action But the populist moment was primarily rural and directed toward the needs of small farmers. Yet it led the way for the progressive moment was a reform movement of urban, educated and middle class Americans. This movement sought reform of the crime poverty family breakdown and others problems of urban areas. It was also a movement of the old middle class business and professional people who felt threatened by the rapidly growing large industries businesses and major bunks.
American sociologist emerged in this context. Some of the early American sociologist were main participant in the progressive movement such as Edward Ross and Lester Ward thus in the United States we find an inward looking sociology with an emphasis on social problems. The progressive movement was not a radical movement seeking basic change in the society. In one senses it was rather conservative the traditional values of American were accepted and reform was sought in the name of these values.
The first major research university for American sociology during the early 1900s was at the University of Chicago. The small-town Midwestern orientation of most sociologists at the time made Chicago’s urban problems seen striking many studies were conducted on crime Family problems, poverty and mental illness in Chicago before World War 2 however the most advanced sociology department were located on the East coast. The second wave and Columbia universities General theory and especially functional theory become the focus of development particularly noteworthy were sociologist like Robert Merton and Talcott parsons who one day may be recognized as equally the structure of Emile Durkheim.
The next major change for American sociology comes in the 1960s. The number of sociologist and students taking sociology courses grew dramatically. There were two primarily reasons for this increase. First the baby boom generation entering colleges created greater demand for social science courses increase more than for most other fields of study evidence of interest in the social sciences. Second during the 1960s the United state was the middle of another major reform moment. In many ways this reform moment was similar to the progressive moment of early 1900s that coincided with the emerges of sociology in this country. There was renewed interest in social problem in the 1960s and many more people especially the young were asking question about the nature of society and their place in it. This of course brought more student to sociology course and employed more sociologist. But the federal government also contributed the growth of sociology with more funding opportunities for research and graduate training.

Author's Bio: 

Murad Ali is a student of Behavioural Sciences. He has completed his Graduation from Karakorum International University Gilgit, Pakistan