Who is Likely to Become a Bully?

Bullying can have a wide-ranging impact on teens - from victims, to those who witness bullying, to the bullies themselves - and affect each one well into adulthood.

Bullying can lead teenagers to feel tense, anxious, and afraid. It can affect their concentration in school, and can lead them to avoid school in some cases. If bullying continues for some time, it can begin to:

affect teens' self-esteem and feelings of self-worth
increase their social isolation, leading them to become withdrawn and depressed, anxious and insecure.
In some cases, bullying can be devastating for teens, with long-term consequences

Some teens feel compelled to take drastic measures, such as carrying weapons for protection or seeking violent revenge.

Others, in desperation, even consider suicide. Researchers have found that years later, long after the bullying has stopped, adults who were bullied as teens have higher levels of depression and poorer self-esteem than other adults.

Bullying can also affect those teens who witness the bullying

In one study of junior high and high school students, over 88 percent said they had witnessed bullying in their schools.

Teens who witness bullying can feel guilty or helpless for not standing up to a bully on behalf of a classmate or friend, or for not reporting the incident to someone who could help. They may experience even greater guilt when they are drawn into bullying by pressure from their peers.

Some teens deal with these feelings of guilt by blaming the victim and deciding that he or she deserved the abuse.

Teens sometimes also feel compelled to end a friendship or avoid being seen with the bullied teen to avoid losing status or being targeted themselves.

Which teens are most likely to become bullies?

While many people believe bullies act tough in order to hide feelings of insecurity and self-loathing, in fact, bullies tend to be confident, with high self-esteem.

They are generally physically aggressive, with pro-violence attitudes, and are typically hot-tempered, easily angered, and impulsive, with a low tolerance for frustration. Bullies have a strong need to dominate others and usually have little empathy for their targets.

Male bullies are often physically bigger and stronger than their peers. Bullies tend to get in trouble more often, and to dislike and do more poorly in school than teens who do not bully others. They are also more likely to fight, drink, and smoke than their peers. Teens who come from homes where parents provide little emotional support for their children, fail to monitor their activities, or have little involvement in their lives, are at greater risk for engaging in bullying behavior.

Parents' discipline styles are also related to bullying behavior: an extremely permissive or excessively harsh approach to discipline can increase the risk of teenage bullying. Surprisingly, bullies appear to have little difficulty in making friends.

Their friends typically share their pro-violence attitudes and problem behaviors (such as drinking and smoking) and may be involved in bullying as well. These friends are often followers who do not initiate bullying, yet participate in it.

Some teenagers not only bully others, they are also the targets of bullies themselves. Like other bullies, they tend to do poorly in school and engage in a number of problem behaviors.

They also tend to be socially isolated, with few friends and poor relationships with their classmates.

What are the long-term consequences of bullying behavior?

Bullying is often a warning sign that children and teens are heading for trouble and are at risk for serious violence.

Teens (particularly boys) who bully are more likely to engage in other antisocial/delinquent behavior (e.g., vandalism, shoplifting, truancy, and drug use) into adulthood. They are four times more likely than nonbullies to be convicted of crimes by age 24, with 60 percent of bullies having at least one criminal conviction.

Resources: Rigby, K. (2001). Health consequences of bullying and its prevention in schools. In J. Juvonen and S. Graham, eds. Peer Harassment in School: The Plight of the Vulnerable and Victimized. New York, New York: Guilford Press.

Author's Bio: 

At Horizon Family Solutions we are well qualified in child and family development, effective parenting practices and family systems theory. Every child is an essential and vital part of a family system. We have complete respect for a parent's intuitive understanding of their child and their knowledge of their own family culture. We also have great respect for the personal dreams and timely goals for a child that a parent holds so dear. We include your dreams and values into our thinking and planning for your child.