Diabetes mellitus is a health condition in which a patient suffers from high sugar level in blood. High sugar level can be an indication of low or no production of insulin in the body. Insulin is a hormone produced by pancreas and is reponsible for maintainance of sugar level in the blood. Other reason of high sugar level is failure of body to respond to the insulin produced by the pancreas. It occurs due to lifestyle factors. Due to non response of cells to insulin, the body develops resistance to insulin, which turns into Diabetes. The most pronounced symptoms of Diabestes are frequent urination or polyuria, excessive thirst or polydipsia and polyphagia or increased hunger. Diabetes can be of various types, but it has three main types.

Type I Diabetes

It occurs due to low production or non-production of insulin by pancreas. It is an autoimmune disease. Immune system defends body by attacking to unhealthy or infected cells in the body. Autoimmune diseases are caused due to failure of immune system to recognize the healthy cells and they start attacking healthy cells. In this type of Diabetes insulin producing beta cells in pancreas are destroyed by patient’s body’s immune system. It is also known as Juvenile Diabetes as it starts early in its patients. 10-15% diabetics suffer from Type I Diabetes. It tends to develop in early age but can develop in any age but young people are more likely to develop this type of Diabetes. It could set off by many factors such as viruses, diet, genetically disposed chemicals or other environmental factors. Type I Diabetes is also known as insulin dependent Diabetes as its patients need to have insulin injections to maintain insulin level and sugar level in the body.

Symptoms of Type I Diabetes are more pronounced and suddenly start showing. It is possible that beta cell destruction has started earlier, but with on set of Diabetes, its symptoms suddenly start showing. Its symptoms are frequent urination, excessive thirst, increased hunger, persistent tiredness, weight loss and changes in vision including blurred vision and blindness. If a patient of Type I Diabetes is not treated for long he may develop diabetic ketoacidosis. Other harms to a prolonged high sugar level are coma and even death in some cases.

Type II Diabetes

It is the most common type of Diabetes. It develops due to body’s failure to respond to the insulin produced by the pancreas. Due to insulin resistance there develops a false deficiency of insulin leading to high sugar level. It is also known as non-insulin dependent Diabetes. This disease occurs due to genetic factors, obesity, inactivity, high blood pressure and poor diet. Its symptoms may not show for years are less pronounced in nature. Patients suffering from Type II Diabetes are at higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Symptoms of Type II Diabetes are constant and extreme fatigue, frequent urination, excessive thirst, nausea, weight changes, blurred vision, frequently occurring infections and slow rate of wound healing. In earlier stages it could be corrected by medicines, diet control and exercise. Some patients may need insulin injections later.

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational Diabetes develops during pregnancy. It is health condition in which a pregnant woman develops intolerance to carbohydrate. It could be diagnosed with an oral glucose tolerance test. Pregnant woman who have a family history of diabetes, or during pregnancy are more likely to develop Gestational Diabetes. Other factor leading to Gestational Diabetes is obesity. Woman who belong to community, which has higher risk of developing Diabetes are more prone to Gestational Diabetes. Normally Gestational Diabetes is curbed after pregnancy and sugar level returns to normal. But patients who have suffered from Gestational Diabetes have 20 to 50% higher risk of developing Type II Diabetes later in the life. It may take 5 to 10 years for development of the disease. The child born to a mother suffering from Gestational Diabetes also has a higher risk of obesity, weakened glucose tolerance and diabetes later in life. Self-care and dietary changes are essential in treatment.

There are more types of Diabetes, which are not so common. They are congenital diabetes, cystic fibrosis-related diabetes, steroid diabetes and several forms of monogenic diabetes. Congenital Diabetes develops due to defects of insulin secretion, whereas Steroid diabetes is induced by high doses of glucocorticoids.
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Author's Bio: 

About Author: Jack Taylor, Powers Taylor LLP is a boutique litigation firm that represents people injured by unsafe drugs. The attorneys of Powers Taylor founded this firm to focus on client needs. We employ unique and creative litigation strategies to obtain decisive results for our clients.