Healthy bones sustain us with effortless movement that helps us efficiently discharge our day-to-day tasks. However, due to some form of trauma or accident, Vitamin A deficiency, low bone density or advancement in age, bone fractures can occur. A fracture is referred to as a medical condition where the bone’s continuity is broken. Fractures can range right from a thin crack to a complete break in the bone. Usually fractures are caused by impactful force or even stress, however they can also be caused by the presence of some medical conditions such as osteoporosis and certain types of cancers.

Dr Umesh Shetty, Head of Orthopedics, Axis Orthopedic Hospital has described most common 7 kinds of fractures:

Greenstick Fracture:

When a bone cracks after bending, without completely breaking up into small pieces, it is called a greenstick fracture. It is quite similar in appearance to how a small broken green branch looks on a tree. These fractures usually occurs in children less than 10 years of age because their bones are more flexible and softer than the bones of adults.

Hairline Fracture:

This type of fracture involves a partial breakage of the bone and is hard to detect with regular x-rays. People who practice jumping or running are more likely to experience a hairline fracture.

Transverse Fracture:

This type of fracture involves the break-up of the bone in one or more transverse process, across the bone and going at a right angle to the bone’s long axis. This type of fracture is generally cause by falls, accidents involving cars, motorcycles or pedestrians, and playing sports that call for sudden twists.

Pathological Fracture:

Sometimes an underlying medical condition causes the bone to gradually weaken, thus resulting in the breakage of the bone, which leads to a pathological fracture.

Spiral Fracture:

When a long bone is broken by a sudden twisting action, it leads to a spiral fracture, which is also called a twisting or torsion fracture. This type of fracture usually results in serious injuries and can increase the risk of post-fracture complications.

Oblique Fracture:

When the breakage occurs at a plane which is oblique to the bone’s long axis, it is referred to as oblique fracture. Depending on what bone is affected, an oblique fracture can vary in its severity. Such fractures typically or longer bones like the tibia or femur.

Compression Fracture:

A compression fracture occurs when there is break in the vertebrae, or the bones of the spine, and most compression fractures occur in the front of the vertebra. Those who suffer from the condition called osteoporosis are more likely to suffer from a compression fracture.

Comminuted Fracture:

When the bone breaks in two or more pieces, and the bone fragments are resting in the place of fracture, it is referred to as a comminuted fracture. Usually a high-impact trauma, such as a vehicular accident, results in such type of fracture.

Segmental Fracture:

When there is a “floating” bone segment due to the same bone being fractured in two places, it is called a segmental fracture. Injuries associated with long term complications and Increased morbidity often lead to this type of fracture.

Stress Fracture:

Usually common among athletes, this type of fracture occurs as a result of bone breakage due to repeated strain and stress.

Author's Bio: 

The bone fractures are caused due to sports injuries, bone weaking from aging, car accidents and often from the falls. Here we would be looking towards some of the most common fractures are caused in childrens as wells as in adults.

In this article, the head of orthopedics at Axis Orthopedic Hospital, Dr Umesh Shetty will provide us an overview about the most common kinds of orthopedic fractures that he had to deal with and how are they caused.