Alternatively referred to as hydrolases, the hydrolytic enzymes are used to split different groups of biomolecules, like esters, peptides, and glycosides. Moreover, hydrolytic enzymes can break down protein, lipids, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and fat molecules to their simplest or smallest forms. Furthermore, lysosomal hydrolase comprises phosphatases, carboxylesterases, ribonuclease, glucuronidases, β-galactosidase, and acid proteinase. This hydrolytic enzyme is proven to play a crucial role in brain tumors.

Hydrolytic enzymes are further categorized into the following:
Glucoamylase
Another kind of hydrolytic enzyme is glucoamylase. Also known as microbial enzymes, these exo-acting enzymes release consistent glucose units. Glucoamylasepromotes the release of glucose from the starch molecules’ non-reducing ends. Moreover, this enzyme consecutively hydrolyzes α-1,4 glycosidic bonds, which results in glucose production. Furthermore, this enzyme can also hydrolyze the 1,6 bonds and give the same end-product – glucose.

Protease
Protease is the most common hydrolytic enzyme type used in various industries such as food, beverage, etc. In addition to it, proteases are also responsible for the reduction of molecules through hydrolysis. This enzyme hydrolyzes the peptide bonds (these bonds link amino acids to the protein chain). Protease is generally made of animals, plants, fungi, and bacteria.

Cellulase
Cellulase is a hydrolytic enzyme that is added to the pretreated material. This enzyme hydrolyzes the cellulose fraction into glucose. Cellulase enzymes are used to degrade the cellulose of plant cells. These enzymes are produced by bacterial and fungal species (at different temperatures, these bacteria or fungal species can be aerobic or anaerobic).

Alpha-Amylase
Alpha-amylase is one of the most widely used hydrolytic enzymes. It is used to degrade the starch molecules and further hydrolyze them into small-chain dextrins. Alpha amylase acts on the α-1,4 glycosidic bonds. These bonds are usually found in starch polysaccharides. All the living beings present on earth produce this enzyme.

Lipase
Lipase is another type of hydrolytic enzyme and acts as a catalyst in the hydrolysis of triglycerides (the substrate) to fatty acids and glycerol. Lipase is generally found in all living beings and begins the initial digestion in the small intestine’s lumen (interior). Furthermore, lipase is assisted by bile salts, which reduce the surface tension of fat droplets. Once the surface tension is reduced, lipases can attack the triglyceride molecules.

Applications of Hydrolytic Enzymes
Use of hydrolytic enzymes in the dairy industry
The dairy industry is one of the most common uses of hydrolytic enzymes. Dairy manufacturing is highly dependent on hydrolytic enzymes. Hydrolytic enzymes impact dairy products, such as their texture, taste, etc. For instance, proteases are widely used as coagulant agents in cheese production, affecting the taste and texture of the cheese.

On the other hand, lipases ripen the cheese and develop its flavor, texture, and body characteristics. Moreover, the bottlenecks caused by lactose in dairy products are overcome with the use of lactases, which hydrolyze lactose in dairy products and increase the availability of good nutrition.

Cosmetics Made with Hydrolytic Enzymes
Like any other enzyme, hydrolytic enzymes are used to speed up reactions; in other words, they are used as catalysts. These enzymes are also widely used in the cosmetic industry. Hydrolytic enzymes such as protease break skin-friendly proteins into peptides. These peptides are then broken down into amino acids, resulting in easy absorption by the skin and promoting cell growth and renewal.

Author's Bio: 

Creative Enzymes is a remarkable supplier and manufacturer in the Enzymology field. Equipped with advanced technique platform, Creative Enzymes is able to offer high-quality and professional services for customers. Its products and services are widely used in the academic and pharmaceutical industries.