Down syndrome occurs in a person when an extra replicate of the 21st chromosomes exist. This type of Down syndrome is termed Trisomy 21. The extra 21st chromosome causes problems with the development of the body and the brain. This condition is the most usual cause of congenital birth defects. Asperger syndrome is frequently identified as a high-functioning type of autism. Patients with this type of syndrome experience difficulty in socializing, repetitive behaviors, and clumsiness. Motor skills development can be deferred.

Asperger syndrome was once called autistic psychopathy by Hans Asperger in 1944. The accurate origin of this condition is still not known. More likely, an irregularity in the brain causes this syndrome. Autism is possibly linked to genetic or familial factors. A particular gene is not identified yet. The syndrome emerges to be more typical in males than in females. a lot of them posses an above-average intelligence quotient even though patients with Asperger syndrome frequently have problems with socialization. These patients may perform extremely well in certain field, such as science and computer programming. There is no evident delay in the development of their cognitive abilities. The capacity to perform their activities of daily living is not altered.

Down syndrome manifestations differ from one person to another and can vary from mild to serious. Nevertheless, patients with Down syndrome may have an extensively distinct appearance. The head of the patient may be smaller than usual and irregularly shaped. For instance, the head can be round with a flat portion on the back surface. The innermost cantus of the eyes can be pear-shaped instead of pointed.

Frequent physical manifestations include excess skin at the nape, flattened nose, reduced muscle tone during birth, and small ears. Patients with this syndrome also have a single crease in the palm and in the sole, upward slanting eyes, white spots, termed as Brushfield spots, on the iris or the colored portion of the eye. Physical development is frequently sluggish than normal. Most patients with this syndrome never attain their normal adult height. Patients may as well have delays in social and mental development. Common difficulties may involve poor judgment, short attention span, slow learning abilities, and impetuous behavior. They can be aware of their limitations as the patient mature physically. They can as well feel anger and frustration because of their incapacities.

Patients with Asperger syndrome become over-attentive or obsessed on one topic or object, disregarding all others. These patients want to know all about the particular topic. They may present various facts about their object f interest, other than that there will be no conclusion or end point. They frequently cannot distinguish that the other person has lost concern with the topic. Their areas of interest can be reasonably narrow like a fascination with phone books, train schedules, hoarding of objects, or a vacuum cleaner. People with this syndrome do not withdraw themselves from reality. They frequently approach other people. Nevertheless, their difficulties with language and speech in a social situation frequently lead to seclusion. They converse in a monotone, and cannot respond to the comments of other people.

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