The kidneys are two bean shaped organs in our lower abdomen. They pass liquid body waste through urine also filters blood to keep it clean.

Key functions of kidney, includes:

Maintaining overall body fluid balance
Circulating and filtering waste from blood
Filtering waste from food and toxic substances from our body
It help produce red blood cells
Release hormone that regulates blood pressure
Initiate Vitamin D to maintain healthy bones
Keeping balance of minerals in blood

Each kidney contains about 1 million of nephrons, which are responsible for the whole kidney function. They take blood vessels, filter and help pass waste through urine and send back blood to heart.

The Main Risk Factors of kidney diseases are:
High Blood Pressure
Genetic/ Family history of kidney disease
Cardiovascular disease
Here are few additional risk factors:
Age 60 years or older
Low birth weight
Taking painkillers or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for long time
Lumps or autoimmune disorders
Chronic urinary tract infection
Kidney stones

Kidneys perform various important works for our body to be stable and healthy, but due to the toxins and wastes they encounter, the kidney may get infected to various problems.

Some of them are:
Chronic kidney disease
Kidney failure
Kidney stone
Urinary tract infections
Kidney cysts
Nephrotic syndrome
Polycystic kidney disease

As the kidney is in direct contact with toxins and wastes so it gets affected, here is how we can understand whether the kidney has problem.

Some common symptoms or warning signs are:
Blood in urine
Foamy urine
Swelling in ankle and foot
Dry or itchy skin
Muscle cramps
Puffiness around the eyes
Increased or decreased urine
Inability to concentrate
Low appetite
Trouble sleeping

These are few common symptoms which suspects person to have a kidney problem. In case you notice any of the symptoms, contact a nephrologist or urologist. Depending on your situation, doctor may do kidney function test to make a diagnosis.

The kidneys are important organ that affect many body parts directly including heart so keeping them healthy is one of the important work to do.

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Author's Bio: 

Apollo Hospitals is the Best Urologist hospital in Lucknow for all types of kidney and urological diseases from acute to chronic renal failures.