Diseases affecting the rectum area are not very rare. Doctors across the country receive several cases for anorectal illnesses frequently. However, most patients impacted by these conditions are unable to explain their problems. There is a lack of understanding and awareness about such diseases and their treatments. This mindset delays the right type of medical care to the patient. In this article, Dr Mayank Madan, the best surgeon in Gurgaon, discusses the difference between piles, fissure and fistula.

Dr Mayank Madan can be consulted at the CK Birla Hospital, a top hospital for surgery in Gurgaon.

Piles, fissure and fistula are diseases that affect the rectum and anal cavity. Let us understand how to distinguish between the three of them.

Key differences between piles, fissure and fistula-


Definition - Piles are also medically known as haemorrhoids. In this condition, the veins and tissues in the anal canal get swollen and become inflamed. Haemorrhoids can develop inside and around the rectum area.

Symptoms - Common signs and symptoms of piles include pain, discomfort, bleeding, swelling in the anus, itching and more. Sometimes when the haemorrhoids develop inside the rectum, they do not cause any pain.

Causes - There is a variety of reasons that lead to piles. These causes include sitting on the toilet for a prolonged time, obesity, being pregnant, anal intercourse, consuming a diet low on fibre, chronic diarrhoea or constipation.

Prevention - Piles can be easily prevented by a change in the style of living. By making some basic moderations, you can effectively avoid this condition. Some top prevention measures include eating a rich high-fibre diet, avoiding sitting on the toilet for a long time, drinking plenty of fluids and exercising regularly. Dr Mayank Madan is a renowned surgeon who offers effective piles treatment in Gurgaon.


Definition - Anal fissure is a condition in which a person suffers from a tear or ulcer on the tissues that line the anus. An anal fissure is a very common disease.

Symptoms - Common symptoms of an anal fissure include painful bowel movements, pain after passing stool, blood in the stool, presence of a lump or crack in the skin around the anus.

Causes - If you have had diarrhoea or constipation for a longer period of time you can develop anal fissure. Childbirth and anal intercourse can also cause a fissure. In rare cases, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) like herpes, Crohn’s disease and HIV can also be a cause of this condition.

Prevention - The prevention of anal fissure is somewhat similar to that of piles. You can simply prevent fissure by avoiding constipation or diarrhoea. Eat high-fibre meals, drink plenty of water, do not hold stool among other measures to avoid fissures.


Definition - Anal fistula is a medical condition in which an infected tunnel develops between the skin and the muscular opening of the anus.

Symptoms - Skin irritation is the most common symptom of fistula. Patients suffering from this condition can also cause throbbing pain while passing stool. Other symptoms include the presence of blood or pus in the stool, swelling and redness, bowel incontinence and more.

Causes - Anal fistula is caused as a result of an infection in the anal gland. However, other medical conditions can also lead to the development of an anal fissure. STIs like Crohn’s disease and HIV are common causes of this condition. Sometimes, it can result as a compilation of surgery near the rectum area.

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