Enzyme is a kind of vital protein that takes charge of many reactions in the organism. Non-protein molecules called coenzymes also help enzymes work. Coenzymes, usually derived from vitamins, are much smaller than the enzymes themselves but equally important. From accelerating digestion to ensuring accurate DNA replication, coenzymes are an important part of any biological system.

Coenzyme was first discovered by scientists for its physiological functions in cellular material and energy metabolism. As an essential coenzyme for biocatalytic reactions, it participates in thousands of physiological reactions, such as cell tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA), fat β oxidation, alcohol metabolism and other processes, and in the metabolism and utilization of nutrients such as sugar, fat, and amino acids have an important role. In addition, metabolites of coenzyme I in the body, such as coenzyme II [NADP (H)], nicotinamide (NAM), and ADP ribose, play important roles in energy metabolism, oxidative stress regulation, and signal pathway transmission.

Coenzymes have an impact on cell function. Intracellular reactions can break down nutrients or bind molecules to keep cells alive. Enzymes can accelerate these reactions. Without enzymes, these reactions may not be possible. Coenzyme, in turn, supports the function of the enzyme. They are loosely combined to help them complete their activities. Coenzymes are non-protein organic molecules that promote the catalysis or reaction of their enzymes. The coenzyme is one of two cofactors used by enzymes in these enzymatic reactions. Other types of cofactors are inorganic ions. Magnesium, calcium, and potassium ions are often used with enzymes to speed up these reactions.

Coenzymes work by binding to the active side of the enzyme (the side that plays a role in the reaction). Since enzymes and coenzymes are non-metallic organic molecules, they are held together by forming covalent bonds. Coenzymes share electrons with enzymes, rather than losing or gaining electrons. When they form the bond, they help the reaction only by carrying and transferring electrons. Coenzymes do not become part of the enzymatic reaction. In contrast, the covalent bond is broken at the end of the reaction and the coenzyme returns to the free cycle inside the cell until it is used again.

Vitamins and coenzymes
Whether you take vitamins from food or vitamins from supplements, you increase the amount of coenzymes in your body. Some vitamins help the body produce coenzymes, such as folic acid and certain B vitamins, while others act directly as coenzymes, such as vitamin C. Without vitamins, the body cannot produce coenzymes.

Other important coenzymes
1. Coenzyme Q (CoQ): Coenzyme Q is a class of quinones widely distributed in the body, also known as ubiquinone. Existing in the inner membrane of mitochondria, it is an indispensable hydrogen transmitter in the biological oxidative respiratory chain and has important physiological significance.

2, Glutathione (Glutathion): Glutathione is a small molecular weight intracellular tripeptide, namely γ-L-glutamyl-L-cysteyl glycine. The main role of peptides is to protect the thiol groups of some proteins to maintain them in a reduced state.

3, Uridine diphosphate glucose (UDPG): is a kind of nucleoside diphosphate sugars, as a coenzyme, mainly play a role in sugar synthesis. Other nucleoside diphosphate sugars that can be used as coenzymes are uridine diphosphate galactose (UDPGal), uridine diphosphate mannose (UDPMan), etc., which are very important in carbohydrate metabolism.

4. Vitamin K family: Some members of the vitamin K family may play certain coenzymes in the body.

5. Menaquinones (Vitamin K2): It is likely to be a coenzyme in some bacteria that makes dihydroorotate into an orotate reaction.

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