Bioinformatics is a discipline that studies the collection, processing, storage, dissemination, analysis, and interpretation of biological information. It is also a combination of life science and computer science with the rapid development of life science and computer science. New disciplines. It reveals the biological mysteries of large and complex biological data through the comprehensive use of biology, computer science and information technology.

Introduction

Bioinformatics is a science that uses computers as tools to store, retrieve, and analyze biological information in the research of life sciences. It is one of the major frontier fields of life science and natural science today, and it will also be one of the core fields of natural science in the 21st century. Its research focus is mainly reflected in two aspects of genomics (Genomics) and proteomics (Proteomics), specifically from the nucleic acid and protein sequences, to analyze the structure and function of biological information expressed in the sequence.

Definition

1. Bioinformatics is a new subject of genetic data collection, analysis and dissemination to the research community

2. Bioinformatics refers to database-like activities, involving persistent sets of data that are maintained in a consistent state over essentially indefinite periods of time.

3. Bioinformatics is a conceptual biology in terms of macromolecules, and uses informatics technology, which includes various methods derived from disciplines such as applied mathematics, computer science, and statistics. Come up to understand and organize information related to biological macromolecules.

Specifically, as a new subject area, bioinformatics is based on the analysis of genomic DNA sequence information as the source. After obtaining the information of the protein coding region, the spatial structure of the protein is simulated and predicted, and then necessary based on the function of the specific protein. Drug design. Genomic informatics, protein spatial structure simulation and drug design constitute three important components of bioinformatics. From the specific content of bioinformatics research, bioinformatics should include these three main parts: (1) research on new algorithms and statistical methods; (2) analysis and interpretation of various data; (3) development of new tools for effective use and management of data.

Bioinformatics is a discipline that uses computer technology to study the laws of biological systems.
Bioinformatics is just a combination of molecular biology and information technology (especially Internet technology). The research materials and results of bioinformatics are a variety of biological data. The research tool is a computer. The research methods include the search (collection and selection), processing (editing, collating, managing, and displaying) of biological data Use (calculation, simulation).

Since the 1990s, with the development of various genome sequencing projects and the breakthrough of molecular structure determination technology and the popularization of the Internet, hundreds of biological databases have sprung up and grown rapidly. It poses a serious challenge to bioinformatics workers: what information is contained in hundreds of millions of ACGT sequences? How does this information in the genome control the development of the organism? How has the genome itself evolved?

Another challenge of bioinformatics is to predict protein structure from the amino acid sequence of the protein. This problem has plagued theoretical biologists for more than half a century, and the need to find answers to questions is becoming increasingly urgent. The Nobel Prize winner W. Gilbert once pointed out in 1991: "The way traditional biology solves problems is experimental. Now, based on all genes will be known, and reside in the database in an electronically operable way, the new the starting point of the biological research model should be theoretical. A scientist will start from the theoretical speculation, and then return to the experiment to track or verify these theoretical assumptions."

The main research directions of bioinformatics: genomics-proteomics-systems biology-comparative genomics. In 1989, the International Conference on Computer Models of Biochemical Systems and Biomathematics was held in the United States. The era of computational systems biology.
Let’s not cite the lengthy definition of bioinformatics, and explain its core application in plain language: With the milestone progress of the biological genome-sequencing project including the Human Genome Project, the resulting Biological data has been increasing at an unprecedented rate, and has doubled every 14 months. At the same time, with the popularity of the Internet, hundreds of biological databases have sprung up and grown up like mushrooms. However, these are just the acquisition of original biological information, which is the initial stage of the development of the bioinformatics industry. Most of the bioinformatics enterprises at this stage make a living by selling biological databases. Celera, known for sequencing human genomes, is a successful representative of this stage.
The advanced stage of the bioinformatics industry is reflected in this, and humans have since entered the post-genomic era centered on bioinformatics. The new drug innovation project combined with bioinformatics is a typical application at this stage.

Experience stage

1. Pre-genomic era (before the 1990s)
This stage is mainly the establishment of various sequence comparison algorithms, the establishment of biological databases, the development of search tools, and DNA and protein sequence analysis.

2. Genome era (from 1990s to 2001)
This stage is mainly large-scale genome sequencing, gene identification and discovery, systematic establishment of network databases and development of interactive interface tools.

3. Post-genomic era (2001-present)
With the completion of the human genome sequencing work and the completion of sequencing of various model biological genomes, the development of biological sciences has entered the post-genomic era. The focus of genomics research has shifted from the structure of the genome to the function of the gene. An important sign of this transfer is the generation of functional genomics, and the previous work of genomics is accordingly called structural genomics.

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