5. Science: single-cell RNA sequencing reveals the composition of two brain cancers

A careful analysis of the two brain cancers revealed that the two brain cancers were derived from the same type of neural precursor cells and could be distinguished by genetic mutation patterns and microenvironmental composition. The latest study, completed by researchers at the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) and the Bode Institute, was recently published in Science.

"Our study redefines two similar gliomas that carry IDH gene mutations - astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma." Mario Suvà, co-author of the study, MGH Pathology and Cancer Research Center The doctor said, "Although we know that there are differences between the two tumor genes, we don't know if they have the same source of cells or whether their gene expression differs due to genetics, cell origin or tumor microenvironment?"

Several recent studies have identified genetic mutations that promote tumor growth and classify tumors based on gene expression analysis of tissue samples containing tumor cells and normal cells in the microenvironment. But because these analyses are based on large tumor tissue, they can mask a lot of important information.

[Original doi:10.1126/science.aai8478]

6. Science: a major breakthrough! Single cell sequencing reveals the mystery of immune cell aging
In a new study, researchers from the European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI), the University of Cambridge, the Welkom Foundation Sanger Institute, and the UK Cancer Institute (CRUK-CI) targeted the immune system. The long-standing debate about why the existence of weakening with age increases raises new insights. Their findings suggest that immune cells in aging tissues lack collaboration and exhibit more changes in gene expression than immune cells in younger tissues. The results of the study were published in the March 31, 2017 issue of Science, titled "Aging increases cell-to-cell transcriptional variability upon immune stimulation."
All of us experience aging with body function gradually declining, but what exactly leads to this decline? Why does it occur at different rates in different parts of the body? To find the answer, scientists need to reveal all the mechanisms of aging in every tissue at the molecular level. The current study focuses on immune tissues, especially CD4+ T cells.

[doi:10.1126/science.aah4115]

7. Cell: Combining CRISPR and single-cell RNA sequencing to analyze gene function
Which combinations of mutations help cancer cells survive? Which cells in the brain are involved in Alzheimer's disease? How do immune cells perform their complex decision-making processes? Now, in a new study, researchers from institutions such as the Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel combine two powerful research tools—the CRISPR gene editing and the single-cell genomic analysis—in one approach. It may ultimately help us answer these and more. The results of the study were published in the December 15th, 2016, issue of the Cell issue entitled "Dissecting Immune Circuits by Linking CRISPR-Pooled Screens with Single-Cell RNA-Seq".

This new technology allows researchers to manipulate gene function in a single cell and understand the results of each change at very high resolution. They say that a single experiment using this method may be equivalent to thousands of experiments using previous methods, and it may accelerate the development of genetic engineering.
Genetic editing technology CRISPR has been changing the world of biological research, and its clinical use is coming soon. CRISPR was originally discovered in cells as a primitive acquired immune system: it cleaves viral DNA and pastes parts of it into their own genome to fight the virus.

[Original doi:10.1016/j.cell.2016.11.039]

8. Science: large-scale single-cell sequencing to construct the first human brain neuron expression map
In a new study, researchers from the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) developed the first method for the identification of different subtypes of human brain neuronal neurons, laying the foundation for "drawing" human brain neuronal cell genes; at the same time, it can help us better understand the normal function of the human brain and disease abnormalities, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia and depression. By separating and sequencing single-nuclear nuclear transcriptomes from individual human brain neuronal nuclei, the researchers identified 16 neuronal subtypes in six advanced functional regions of the human brain.

This new study reflects a growing general understanding that individual brain cells are unique – these cells express different genes and perform different functions. To better understand this diversity, the researchers analyzed more than 3,200 neuronal cells that were distributed in six different Brodmann regions of the cerebral cortex and that took on different functions.
Professor Zhang Wei from the Department of Bioengineering at UCSD said: "This study constructed a complete system to observe and compare individual neuronal cells; this can help us understand how many subtypes of brain neuronal cells exist." With the recognition of these neuronal cell subtypes, researchers can construct a "reference map" of human brain cells; this is the basis for our understanding of the normal healthy brain and abnormal disease brains. "In the future, patients with brain diseases or abnormalities can obtain more accurate diagnosis and individualized treatment based on the difference with the 'reference map'. This is very similar to the establishment of the human genome map," said Professor Zhang Wei.

[Original DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf1204]

9. Science: Analysis of melanoma using single-cell RNA sequencing

Single-cell analysis is a groundbreaking approach that is now being used throughout the biological world to study a common problem: how to study cell diversity in heterogeneous cell populations. This diversity can have a profound impact on cell survival and proliferation, response to drug therapy and intervention, and many other biological processes. Single-cell technology has been used in numerous studies—for example, to study the heterogeneity of immune responses in autoimmune diseases, to study host-pathogen interactions in infectious diseases, and to study human transcriptomes. Today, it is used to study cancer tissue – a complex and complex cellular environment that often plagues scientists.
In the past two years, under the leadership of Abraregev, a member of the Broad Institute of the United States, a professor of biology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and a researcher at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, computational biologists, cell loop experts, and the Broad Institute. Member Levi Garraway's cancer research team worked together to accept this challenge.
In a new study, the Garraway team studied melanoma, the most deadly skin cancer, in collaboration with Alex Shalek, an associate professor at MIT and single-cell analyst. Their research helps reveal the diverse cellular environment of tumors, which provides insight into not only the heterogeneity of cancer cells in tumors, but also T cells and other cells that may affect cancer behavior and response to treatment.

[Original doi:10.1126/science.aad0501]

10. Nature: How to find rare cell types using single-cell mRNA sequencing?

Recently, scientists from the Netherlands published a new research progress in the famous international academic journals. They used a new calculation method combined with transcriptome sequencing to discover some rare cell types in the small intestine. It is of great significance for exploring the biology of tissue composition under health and disease states.

Understanding the development and function of an organ requires a clear understanding of the characteristics of all cell types that make up the organ. The traditional method of discovering and isolating cell subpopulations is based on messenger RNA or protein expressed by several known marker genes. But for some rare cell types, for example, stem cells, transiently present precursor cells, cancer stem cells or circulating tumor cells are of great importance.

To solve this problem, the researchers first randomly selected hundreds of different cell types from the cultured small intestine organs for transcriptome sequencing. This cultured small intestine organ contains all the cell lineages of the mammalian small intestine. Since the currently available calculations can only be determined for some of the more abundant cell types, the researchers developed an algorithm called RaceID to find rare cell types in complex single cell populations.

[Original doi:10.1038/nature14966]

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