Flavonoids are a class of compounds that exist in nature and have a structure of 2-phenylchromogen. They have a ketocarbonyl group in their molecule, the oxygen atom at the first position is basic, and can form a salt with a strong acid, and its hydroxyl derivatives are mostly yellow, so it is also called flavin or flavonoid. Flavonoids are usually combined with sugar in plants to form glycosides, and a small part exists in free form. Most plants contain flavonoids, which play an important role in plant growth, development, flowering, fruiting, antibacterial and disease prevention.

Flavonoids are widely found in plants in nature and are secondary metabolites of plants. Flavonoids are a class of yellow pigments derived from flavonoids as the nucleus, including flavonoid isomers and their hydrogenation and reduction products, that is, a series of compounds with C6-C3-C6 as the basic carbon framework. Flavonoids are widely distributed in the plant kingdom, and most of them exist in the form of glycosides or carbon sugar groups combined with sugars in plants, and some exist in free form.

There are many compounds with medicinal value in flavonoids. These compounds are used to prevent and treat cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, such as reducing the fragility of blood vessels, improving the permeability of blood vessels, lowering blood lipids and cholesterol, and preventing and treating elderly hypertension, cerebral hemorrhage, coronary heart disease , Angina pectoris, dilated coronary vessels, increased coronary flow. Many flavonoids have antitussive, expectorant, antiasthmatic and antibacterial activities, as well as protecting the liver, detoxifying liver, antifungal, treating acute, chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, anti-free radicals and antioxidant effects. In addition, flavonoids have the same effects as phytoestrogens. In the production of animal husbandry animals, the application of flavonoids can significantly improve animal production performance, improve animal body disease resistance, and improve animal body immune function.

2-phenylchromogen
A class of yellow pigments derived from flavonoids. These include flavonoid isomers and their hydrogenated reduction products, that is, a series of compounds with C6-C3-C6 as the basic carbon framework. Flavonoids are widely distributed in the plant kingdom, and most of them are combined with sugar to form glycosides or carbon sugar groups in plants, and some exist in free form. Natural flavonoids often contain hydroxyl, methoxy, hydrocarbyloxy, prenyloxy and other substituents on the mother core. Due to the presence of these chromophores, such compounds are mostly yellow. And because the oxygen atom on the γ-pyrone ring in the molecule can form a salt with a strong acid and appear weakly basic, it was once called a flavin compound.

According to the characteristics of the oxidation degree of the three-carbon bond structure and the connection position of the B ring, flavonoids can be divided into the following categories: flavonoids and flavonols; flavanones and flavanone alcohols; isoflavones; isoflavones; cha Ear ketone; dihydrochalcone; orange ketone; flavan and flavanol; flavandiol.

Effect

Anti-free radical and anti-oxidation effects of flavonoids: Studies have shown that flavonoids have the ability to improve the antioxidant and scavenge free radicals of animal organisms. Flavonoids can combine with peroxy radicals to form flavonoid radicals due to the hydrogen atom on the phenolic hydroxyl group, and then react with other free radicals to terminate the free radical chain reaction.

The effects of ketones on the cardiovascular system: Flavonoids are used in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, such as preventing arteriosclerosis, lowering blood lipids and cholesterol, lowering blood sugar, relaxing blood vessels, improving vascular permeability and reducing the incidence of coronary heart disease. good effect. Atherosclerosis is mainly a lesion of reduced arterial elasticity and narrowing of the lumen, which is caused by abnormal lipid metabolism.
Flavonoid antibacterial effect: Studies have shown that almost all flavonoids have varying degrees of antibacterial activity against many microorganisms (including Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria and fungi).

The effect of flavonoids on apoptosis and liver disease: Apoptosis refers to the process of cells under certain physiological or pathological conditions under the control of internal genetic mechanisms to automatically end life without causing the lysis of surrounding cells. Flavonoids can induce apoptosis of cancer cells and tumor cells, exert anti-cancer and anti-tumor effects, and delay the apoptosis of normal tissue cells.
The regulatory effect of ketones on animal hormones: Flavonoids have the dual regulatory effect of estrogen, which can promote the growth of animals, affect the secretion and metabolism of sex hormones, and the level of hormones in the body.

Effects of ketones on immunity: Flavonoids can improve the body's immune function and promote body health.

The application of flavonoids in livestock production: flavonoids are widely present in plants. Many forages such as alfalfa are rich in content. Since flavonoids have more biological functions, they have a positive effect on promoting livestock production.

Value

There are many compounds with medicinal value in flavonoids, such as Xiangtianguo, Rutin in Sophora japonica and tangerine in tangerine peel, which can reduce the brittleness of blood vessels, improve the permeability of blood vessels, lower blood fat and cholesterol. Used to prevent hypertension and cerebral hemorrhage in the elderly. Among them, Xiangtianguo is a very rare plant. It is rich in the important components of ginseng and ginkgo: saponins and flavonoids. These two components are obtained in the same plant, and the proportion of the amount is quite suitable. Examples are extremely rare, and they are now matched with one plant in a clever way, and have very precious medicinal value.

The "Malaysia Herbal Medicine Directory" records that Xiangtianguo tastes bitter, astringent, cool in nature, antipyretic, astringent, and strong. Its seed treatment: diabetes, hypertension. Xiang Tianguo is known as "after the plant", and its health benefits have been handed down from generation to generation in the Solomon Islands. Local Solomon Islands residents have taken Xiang Tianguo for more than a thousand years. . According to statistics, the incidence of diabetes and high blood pressure among local people is much lower than that in other parts of the world, which is closely related to its long-term consumption.

Shuxuening tablets made from Ginkgo biloba contain flavonoids and diflavonoids, and are used for the treatment of coronary heart disease and angina pectoris. Fully synthetic ethoxyflavone, also known as Xinmaishutong or Ricodin, has the effect of dilating coronary vessels and increasing coronary flow. Many flavonoids have antitussive, expectorant, antiasthmatic and antibacterial activities. Liver protection, detoxification, antifungal, treatment of acute and chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis.

Structure type
The earliest flavonoids mainly refers to a class of compounds whose parent nucleus is 2-phenyl chromogen, but now it generally refers to a series of compounds in which two benzene rings (A ring and B ring) are connected to each other through a central three carbon. According to the characteristics of the oxidation degree of the central three carbons, whether it forms a ring, the connection site of the B ring, etc., this type of compound can be divided into a variety of structural types.

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