Autophagy is an autophagosome that acts on endogenous, ie, some organelles or local cytoplasms that are metamorphosed and damaged within the cell. This lysosome is widely present in normal cells and acts as a "scavenger" in the cell, as a normal pathway for the natural attrition and renewal of intracellular organelles and other structures. When tissue cells are damaged by various physical and chemical factors, autophagic lysosomes are greatly increased, thus protecting cells from damage.

The substrate for the action of autophagic lysosomes is endogenous, that is, organelles or local cytoplasm derived from aging and disintegration in cells. They are surrounded by a single layer of membrane, which often contains endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, and Golgi complexes or lipids, glycogen, and the like that have not yet been decomposed. Autophagic lysosomes in normal cells play an important role in the structure of digestion, decomposition, and natural replacement in some cells. When cells are exposed to drugs, radiation, and mechanical damage, the number is significantly increased. Autophagic lysosomes are also frequently seen in diseased cells.

The action of lysosomes also includes the digestion of intracellular substances, which can digest and decompose various substances in the cells that are taken up by endocytosis and various organelles that are dying or damaged in cells.

Various macromolecules in the phagocytic lysosome can be decomposed into simple substances by the action of hydrolases. For example, the protein can be decomposed into a dipeptide or a free amino acid; the nucleic acid can be decomposed into a nucleoside and a phosphoric acid; the carbohydrate can be decomposed into an oligosaccharide or a monosaccharide; and the neutral fat can be decomposed into glycerin, a fatty acid or the like. These soluble small molecular substances, which are decomposed and formed, can enter the cytoplasmic matrix through the lysosomal membrane, re-engage in the metabolism of the cells, and some undigested substances remain, forming residual bodies. ,

Lysosomal plays an important role in bone turnover during bone growth and bone remodeling. Osteoclast-derived lysosomal enzymes are released outside the cell, breaking down and eliminating old bone matrix, an important step in bone renewal. The specific process of lysosomal enzyme release may be: after the change of cyclase activity in the cell, with the increase of cAMP, the protein kinase is activated to cause phosphorylation of the microtubule and its surrounding proteins, and the result is microtubule Aggregation causes the lysosome to move toward the cell membrane and fuse with the cell membrane, and then the hydrolase in the lysosome is excreted outside the cell to break down and eliminate the old bone.

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