What is ADME?

ADME is an abbreviation in pharmacokinetics and pharmacology for “absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion”, and it also describes the disposition of a pharmaceutical compound within an organism. This process may occur at the same time with metabolism and excretion of exogenous chemicals, and we can simply call the process as the transportation of drug.

Absorption: it describes the body absorb the drugs we take in.
Distribution: the process of drug distribute into its effector site of our body.
Metabolism: when the drug enters the body, it breaks down and the majority of small-molecule drug metabolism is carried out in the liver.
Excretion: the drugs and their metabolites remove from the body through three main sites: kidney, biliary or fecal excretion and lungs.

Performance of ADME in vivo

What can we learn from this title? Maybe you will think of the Mouse Experiment, but this is not similar to that. We just use the most advanced technology to study the reaction of our body when we take in drugs, and Study on the effect of drugs in human body. The ingestion of drugs, like eating, is a process of circulation in our bodies. When the drug enters the blood circulation, the organs of the body begin to process the drug.

Firstly, the drug is absorbed by the body through simple diffusion, active transport, facilitated diffusion, and digestive tract absorption. Secondly, drugs are transported to various tissues and organs by blood circulation, and the corresponding elements are absorbed and transformed by the organs in the human body.

Then, the chemical structure was changed under the action of drug metabolizing enzymes when the drug was absorbed and distributed in the body, and the related organ includes the sub-cells, tissues and organs.

Finally, the drug is discharged from the body in the form of a prototype or metabolite through an excretory or secretory organ. What we do is, through studying the metabolism of drug in the body, to improve the drug properties and promote the development of new drugs.

Preclinical in vivo ADME studies

In the last two decades, the way of study the process of drug in human body has deeply changed, including the pharmacokinetic (PK) and drug metabolism (DM) preclinical studies. In vivo preclinical studies almost invariably included ‘ excretion balance’, metabolic profile in plasma and excreta, plasma levels of drug-related material (DRM) and of parent compound in toxicological species and a tissue distribution study performed with the whole-body autoradiography (WBA) technique. The classical study of ADME was operated in the nineties and the way we use now is also similar to this study.

It should be reminded that there are exist many alternative designs for human ADME study, we also could to expect that continuous progressed in analytical techniques will allow in the future to obtain complete human metabolic information without the need of administering the radioactive compound in our body .

Benefits of ADME studies

1. It can help to clarify the mechanism of toxic effect of exogenous chemicals, clarify the species difference of chemical disposal, and also can be used to predict the disposal of chemicals after human exposure and their role in toxicity.

2. It is helpful to clarify the mechanism of combined toxicity of two or more exogenous chemicals. Exogenous chemicals can interact with each other in the process of ADME and change the concentration of foreign chemicals in target organs.

3. It can change the ADME process of exogenous chemicals to prevent and treat exogenous chemicals poisoning.

Our recent studies of ADME

There are some people would ask why we should pay so much attention to this subject? With the development of drug and the appearance of new disease, the demand of drugs is getting higher and higher, however, the role of drugs in vivo is not ideal, so it is urgent to use MADE to study the properties of drug. Our company has been committed to the research for decades and gained many achieved results, and our company will make more achievements in the future in the fields of ADME.

Recently, with our latest technology and research, many compounds can be rapidly screened using our rapid pharmacokinetics approach, followed by preclinical ADME and clinical pharmacokinetics for a complete ADME data package to support global regulatory submissions.

Author's Bio: 

Creative Animodel totally understands that it is a challenging and long-time process to develop novel therapies especially anticancer regimens. As an experienced bioscience CRO, we would like to help you accelerate the process through our preclinical services including PD, PK, toxicology services and the establishment of tumor-bearing animal models, the supply of tumor cell lines and tissues, and the support of tumor related biotechniques.