Abstract
In this paper I’m going to discuss something around visualization in Physics point of view and then I will connect it to coaching and how beneficial is using it in a coaching session. When and how to use it and; finally I will mention a typical visualization technique with related questions.

How visualization helps healers
Visualization is a skill that has been used in different cultures and systems enabling access to the past and mostly future events. Lots of books have been written about visualization and variety of its techniques.
In 2006 film the Secret, they recommend to visualize what you desire to achieve it.
Its benefit has also shown in some healing systems, the healer asks patient to visualize the injured part of body as it is sound and perfect. Many people have reported healing by use of visualization.
Nowadays this idea that our thoughts create our destiny is still in people’s minds.
Louis.L.Hay in her book “you can heal your life” says that she could heal her cancer just by some visualization techniques and then she ran several workshops teaching how to heal by visualization and also Jean Houston has presented variety of visualization techniques in her book “The Possible Human” recommending the same idea.

Brain Hemispheres
Before saying anything about visualization let’s start with what’s happening in our brain. The forebrain is made of two hemispheres, left and right.
The hemispheres are almost identical in shape, yet they function differently.
The inputs from our right sensory organs are usually transferred to the left hemisphere and vice versa.
The two hemispheres have their own functionality; in Physics’ realm each one covers one area of Physics defined reality. The Classical and Quantum level of reality.
In 1981, Roger W. Sperry, in his noble lecture declared,” Left and Right hemispheres are characterized by inbuilt, qualitatively different and mutually antagonistic modes of cognitive processing, the left being basically analytic and sequential, the right spatial and synthetic.
A rational was added for evolution of cerebral asymmetry based on the functional advantages of having the two cognitive modes develop in separate hemisphere in order to minimize mutual interference.”
The functionality of two hemispheres is so that in the same individual we may see different mental strategy based on be worked hemisphere.
We usually distinguish the hemisphere by the traits they are linked to-the head versus the heart.
For the majority of individuals, the left hemisphere is trained to be analytical; the data received from the different sense organs are gathered and assembled to arrive at a general idea and the analyzed to draw a detailed picture consisting of the different components.
Time is a tool of the left hemisphere the left side of the brain gathers the information and arranges it in timely succession. That is how we sense the past, the present and the future.
Since the successive accumulation of memories creates the notion time for us, time has a trajectory that extends from the past to the future and not the other way around.
As such, it mimics time as understood in classical Physics. In contrast, time in quantum mechanics can be symmetric and flows in both direction.
Language ability mainly originates in the left hemisphere. Speaking involves isolating sounds and forming specific words. This is in line with the classical level of reality, where components are isolated and separated.
At the quantum level, everything is entangled and can be treated as one.
In order to describe the information it receives, the left hemisphere dissects the incoming data into words and probes their meanings individually and within the context of a sentence.
“Making sense “, means that a huge amount of data is eliminated during the process of speaking. Similarly, data is rigorously reduced as we come from the infinite information at quantum level, which is related to quantum uncertainties and super position of states, to a focused and just one, certain and logical state observed in classical level of reality.
It seems that the left brain receives the incoming data from sense organs, then by conditioning and analyzing, the left hemisphere creates a simpler, more comprehensible and dependable objective world.
The right hemisphere specializes in tasks that are nonverbal, nonmathematical and non-sequential in nature.
Its function is mainly imaginative, time does not exist in its domain and everything is sensed as happening in the present. The now is expanded forever.
The right brain hears the sounds and sees the world. However the sounds are not isolated. Unlike to left brain, which deals with the quantitative measures of dialogue, the right brain is in charge of comprehending the meanings of people’s expressions.
It senses the emotions that accompany the conversation, not the individual wordings. It deals with the quality of communication.
The right mind is spontaneous, care free and imaginative. It allows our artistic juices to flow free without inhibition or judgment. Dreams belong to right hemisphere and are mostly free from the left hemisphere.
Non-locating is a feature of dreams, the right brain is free to envisage all the probabilities and possibilities.
One may postulate that the right brain reveals the quantum mechanical level of reality without interfering, interpreting or manipulating the received wave stimuli.

Wave-Particle Duality
In 1704 Newton described matter as solid, massy, hard and impenetrable. In the late 1800s, James Clerk Maxwell claimed that light is the propagation of electromagnetic wave, his claim was verified by Heinrich Hertz in 1887.Einstein speculated that light is a stream of compact lumps,” Photons”. Photons would be created when electrons emit light and would disappear when light is absorbed. Seeking evidence for his speculation he found “Photoelectric effect” that had been known for twenty years and he explained it with taking light granularity aspect. Einstein said it in 1905:

According to the presently proposed assumption the energy in a beam of light emanating from a point source is not distributed continuously over larger volumes of space but consists of a finite number of energy quanta, localized at points of space which move without subdividing and which are absorbed and emitted only as units.

Compton had, in 1923, almost two decades after Einstein proposed the photon, discovered, to his surprise, that when light bounced off electrons its frequency changed. This is not wave behavior: When a wave reflects from a stationary object, each incident crest produces one other wave crest. The frequency of the wave therefore doesn’t change in reflection. On the other hand it was another proof of light granularity.
Graduate student de Broglie shared Einstein’s feeling that there was a deep meaning to light’s duality, being either a spread-out wave or a stream of compact particles. He wondered whether there might be symmetry in Nature. If light was either wave or particle, perhaps matter was also either particle or wave.
There was a minor accident in the laboratories of the Telephone Company in New York. Clinton Davison was experimenting with the scattering of electrons from the metal surfaces. While Davison’s interests were largely scientific, the phone company was developing vacuum tube amplifiers for telephone transmissions, and for that the behavior of electrons striking metal was important.
Electrons usually bounced off a rough metal to drive off the oxygen. The nickel crystallized, essentially forming an array of slits. Electrons now bounced off in only a few well-defined directions. It was an interference pattern demonstrating the electron’s wave nature. The discovery confirmed de Broglie’s speculations that material objects could also be waves. Physicists in 1923 finally forced to accept a wave-particle duality: A photon, an electron, an atom, a molecule- in principle any object- can be either compact or widely spread-out. You can choose which of these two contradictory features to demonstrate. The physical reality of an object depends on how you choose to look at it.
Physics had encountered consciousness but didn’t yet realize it. In the majority of everyday experiences, we perceive only the solid characteristics of matters. We see a ball as a solid, localized, and tangible object that is subject to external forces. Why do we not sense a ball as a wave? The fading wave characteristic of matter is known as wave function collapse. In this phenomenon, the spread out and multi state wave is reduced to a local and distinct particle.
In 1932, John von Neumann suggested that the collapse of wave function occurs in the consciousness of human beings. In other words, he believed that “objectification” (the act of interpreting incoming data as an object) is an invention of the human mind.
As mentioned above, dualistic wave-particle nature of matter is a great puzzle. We mentioned earlier that the act of dividing and quantifying is a function of the left brain. If the particle portion is merely an invention of our left brain, then it is understandable that our brain would project it to the region where the energy is more concentrated it means close to wave’s peak.

Non locality
Ernest Rutherford at the University of Manchester in England explored the atom by shooting alpha particles (helium atoms stripped out their electrons) through a gold foil. The result emphasized that almost all the atom mass was concentrated in a small lump of positive charge, a “nucleus” and electrons orbited it.
The problem with this model was instability. Bohr the Danish postdoctoral student worked on the stability problem. He accepted quantization as fundamental. After all, it had worked for Planck, and it had worked for Einstein.
He assigned an energy level to each orbit and by fiat forbid an electron to crash into the nucleus. He added that each time an electron jump in a higher orbit in getting back to original orbit emits a photon.
Experiment had shown (as we mentioned earlier) that the observer can change the status of the object.
According to Bohr and Heisenberg, The laws of nature are neither objective nor deterministic. They do not describe a reality that is independent of the observer. You cannot help but affect the outcome of any observation you make, as the Uncertainty Principle (it says we cannot measure the exact position and the exact momentum of any particle at the same time) tells us.

Einstein was the first one who argued this interpretation. Einstein is often quoted as saying, “God doesn’t play dice with the universe,” Einstein felt that leaving fate in hands of individuals was a gamble.
Though he got together with Boris Podolsky and Nathan Rosen and published the EPR paper making an argument that quantum theory was not complete. EPR argued that because of correlation, one could determine the measurement of the second electron once the first was measured which was in contrary of Uncertainty Principle.
The idea is that one is that one way the scientist can make prediction is by correlating two objects that have interacted by collision. The first object, moving at a constant momentum collides with a second object; and we know from Newton that the second object will have the same reaction as the first to the collision, since momentum is conserved, if we measure the position of the first object, then by correlation we should be able to compute the position and momentum of the second, which would mean that quantum theory is incomplete- since we were able to determine the momentum and position at the same time.
John Bell, a British physicist, demonstrated that cause and effect have their places in Newtonian reality, but not in the quantum world. In Paris during 1980s, Alain aspect conducted a series of experiments based on Bell’s propositions. He and his team used polarization rather than momentum, it could be done more accurately and polarization is conserved in the same way as momentum.
The outcome of his experiments showed that the measuring the polarization of the first photon affects on the other one. Einstein called the idea of this effect as” spooky action at a distance,” The physicists called it non locality; it’s related to action in distance without signals!!!
So again quantum experiments showed that we create our reality as we observe it.
Another astounding quality of subatomic entities is that they can travel through walls. This seeming impossibility can be seen when an alpha particle of nucleus decays. This phenomenon is called tunneling and represents a different kind of quantum jump than the one in which an electron leaps to lower and lower energy levels. The alpha particle is held in side the nucleus by a wall of electric force that is theoretically impassable, according to Newtonian physics. There is a certain small chance that it will pop through, emerging on the other side.” Although the probability is extremely low, an alpha particle can unexpectedly show up on the outside of the nucleus and fly off, It doesn’t happen often, but passing through walls- unachievable through classical physics and our usual, everyday universe- can and does actually occur in the quantum.

MY hypothesis around non locality
As the film secret has shown and as most of healers claim, when you make an image of what you want, you are able to create the reality you desire.
So it sounds like there’s a correlation between what you imagine and what’s been created, just the same as two correlated photons which were used in Aspect’s experiment.
The consciousness of a human normally exists within the radiant fields, that surrounds the mind and body and it expands and contracts with the beings perception of existence. The being perceives the environment through sensory receptors that convert perceptions into electrochemical impulses and activates the neurons of the mind. Active neurons generate tiny electromagnetic fields, the sum of which adds to the radiant aura. As you can see it seems that what you sense from the environment, including any changes, creates an image in your mind.
What does it look like? If you think of any of those electromagnetic waves in your mind as a particle correlated with a particle outside of the brain, it’s getting very similar to non locality phenomenon mentioned above.
So clearly you could find that if you create an image in your mind you can change your environment, just through spooky action at a distance. So in order to have visualization work we just need to create a clear picture of what we want including the accompanied feelings. As I mentioned earlier all the probabilities can be envisaged simultaneously by the right brain without limitation forced upon us by logical mind, likewise, reality on the quantum mechanical level also exists concurrently in all possible states, without interfering, interpreting, or manipulating the received wave stimuli. The same will happen reversely you may have all possible states in your mind let it be created in the outside.

State Reduction/ Superposition

Just like what Newton did for describing reality in a classical world, Schrödinger created the wave equation for material objects and despite the classical reality he showed that everything is created by superposition of probabilities and when we observe we choose one of them and that’s why we just see everything in one state.
From this part of quantum mechanic you may probably find out that we are as observers are the one who choose what the reality is and it happens by state reduction.
It sounds like superposition give us the all possibilities and non locality everything is connected.
Could you guess what I mean? What you imagine could be without any limitation and impossibilities and it could be directly connected to what you create in the real world.

How visualization works in coaching
Now, we have got the scientific ideas behind visualization, it’s time to discuss how it works and why do we use it in coaching?
According to the coaching definition it’s a partnership been found to bring up the best from the coachee who is resourceful and knowledgeable enough to solve his/her problem.
Based on this, coach will support the client being clear on what s/he really wants, what barriers has stopped him/her, what tools/resources s/he needs to reach his/her goal.
In one hand visualization will help the client to be clear on:
1. The picture of what s/he wants
2. What kinds of obstacles s/he might face
3. Required resources
4. achievement happiness ( which triggers his/her thoughts in coming up with solutions)
In order to make it effective visualization, coach may ask several questions helping the client use his/her imagination creatively make as clear as possible picture might be imagined.

On the other hand as I mentioned earlier it will create client’s own reality based on quantum mechanics rules.
So based on what issue our client has the supporting questions and techniques will be different.
Here are some typical questions:
Have the client take a deep breathe and imagine him/her self in the situation of the being faced issue, ask him/her what s/he sees; hears; feels; smells and taste. It’s helpful for getting client over there as it sounds real. Then ask him/her about the issue s/he he struggling with in order to make him/her a clear picture of different perspectives s/he can approach to the issue.
There are some other questions to have the client make a powerful picture in order to create his/her own reality.
After having the client gets the safe place in his/her imagination, ask:
Are you seeing this image through your own eyes, or are you seeing yourself in the picture?
Are they moving images? Or is still image or indeed even a series of slides?
What about the color- is it black and white?
Is the image a 3-D image?
Is there any clear background?
Is there any sound or conversation associated with the image?
Ask him/her repeat this imagination sometimes to make it completely close to a real picture.
This helps the client coming up with the brighter solutions as well as creating the desired future.

Conclusion
My researches on visualization have started with its work on patients and healers reports on how useful it is in the process of healing.
I tried to bring some scientific explanations and as I’d heard several times that it doesn’t’ work what does it mean that you can create your reality-and if it works how do you use it in coaching so that it helps your client move forward. I decided to give it simplicity in terms of Physics’ theories showing what’s going on in the brain during imagination and finally make a connection between visualization and coaching.

Future work
Working on this paper really inspired me to work on this interdisciplinary area of science and I’m going to give it more strength based on Physics, Psychology and Professional coaching skills.

References:

1. Natalie Reid “5 steps to a Quantum Life”
2. Bruce Rosenblum and Fred Kuttner :” Quantum Enigma, Physics encounters consciousness:
3. Dr. Mohsen Kermanshahi “ Quantum Mind”
4. Dr. Dave :” Effective Visualization”
5. http://vyseco.com : “ Hyperconsciousness”
6. Walters, Patric- Hey, Anthony J. G “The new quantum universe”
7. Maxwell Malts “ Mental image psychology
8. Stone, Robert B” Man the healer: learn to heal”

Author's Bio: 

I got B.S and M.S in Physics.I am also a Life Coach and Reiki master, interested
in interdisciplinary area relating Physics,Psychology and self developement(life coaching)