Basic Overview – Knee replacements are surgeries that are generally performed when the person suffers from a specific medical condition called arthritis, or it can also be due to reasons like ligament tear, cartilage defects and major fractures in the area that call for the replacement. Knee replacement surgeries are also known as knee arthroplasty, and it is a procedure to improve or partially and fully remove the surfaces of the knee that reduces the pain, removes the disability, and creates longevity for the knee as well as improving the way of moving and living for the individual.

Designs and Particularity – Knee surgeries are complicated procedures and need to be completed and done with an equal amount of care and precision since the knee joins two of the longest and largest bones that provide the support to the entire body. So hence, for this precision, doctors can choose the material, the design that will go well with your body type, and height and also with the amount of work you do.

The surgery generally takes around 1-2 hours to finish, and the equipment used can be made of either metal, plastic, or ceramic that are easy to move with. A common design would replace the back of the knee ligament, called posterior cruciate ligament, whereas another one replaces the anterior cruciate ligament. Some designs are given for the partial replacement, while others are designed as per what the person requires at that point of time.

Types of Knee Replacements – Now, as of 2019, there are a lot many types of knee replacement surgeries one can do for their effective measures, most of which are listed below:

  • Total Knee Replacement: This is the most traditional and the most patented method used by most doctors for a damaged knee, and as said, it is also the most common form of knee replacement. The total knee replacement is so improved now that it can function as a natural knee after the surgery is done and it can be customized enough even to work the way you want to and fits every kind of body type the way you want it to.

In this type of knee replacement, the surgeon accomplishes a four-step process, wherein the first part is where the bone and the cartilage is prepared and removed, the second step is the fitting and fixing of the implants on to the area or the bone either attaching it or making it happen naturally. The third step is to fix a plastic button below the kneecap, and the final step is when the surgeon inserts and fixes a plastic spacer between the knee and the femur so that the smooth functioning of the knee is accomplished. The last step should be done with the best and the most proper alignment, and then the bone must be carefully fitted for proper movement.

  • Partial Knee Replacement: An only possible option for the knee when the defect or arthritis hits only a part of the knee and affects it drastically to the point of surgery. Since this happens less, the proportion of individuals wanting this surgery is lesser than the TKR. But this partial knee surgery is only applicable and suggested for individuals who have strong knee ligaments to withstand the surgery as only the infected part and the least part is replaced keeping most of the natural bone and ligaments and tissues in place for the rest of the bodily movements.

As the name suggests, for surgery of the partial knee, the surgeon removes the arthritic portion of the knee and then replaces that area with either metal or plastic. Since this is partially done, it does hold a lot of advantages like less loss of blood, less time in the hospital and a smaller scar and easier and faster healing time and recovery along with less pain. But it also has some disadvantages since the entire bone isn't being replaced, only a part is being replaced. And the bone would still be prone to arthritis, and it might even be possible that a TKR might be needed in the future if the same problem begins to arise again.

  • Computer Assisted Surgery: This isn't a method of surgery but more like an approach, but this is used in the modern days a lot because of the reliability and the precision that this scientific approach gives. This helps to give the most minimally invasive surgeries as well as the data of the patient is entered into the computer which then tells the specifications that the surgeon needs to follow, with a 3-D model of the knee and proper alignment and accuracy. 
  • Minimally Invasive Surgery: Just like the previous one, this too isn't a method of surgery, but again it is an approach and a procedure that is later followed and is regarded as one of the newest methods to knee replacement. This is always used for the partial knee replacement surgery, and it is efficiently done only when some specific parts of the knee are infected and need to be replaced. This method means that a smaller incision will be made on the knee and the area for a replacement, which will shorten the pain and reduce the blood wastage during the surgery procedure.
Author's Bio: 

Ashis Kumar is a professional blogger.